Cytokines, Stress, and Depression
From the data that are reviewed in this volume, several important points emerge: (1) cytokines administered to patients and laboratory animals induce symptoms of depression, including, depressed mood, decreased interest in daily activities, anhedonia, reduced food intake, sleep disorders, hyperactivity of the HPA axis, and glucocorticoid resistance; (2) exposure to stressors can induce the expression of cytokines at the periphery and in the brain, although the exact conditions in which this occurs are still elusive; (3) depressed patients display an activation of the mono-cyte/macrophage arm of the immune response; (4) clinical diseases with an inflammatory component are associated with a high prevalence of depressive disorders; (5) antidepressants have anti-inflammatory properties and attenuate the behavioral effects of immune challenge.
KeywordsDepressed Patient Quinolinic Acid Inescapable Shock Cytokine Therapy Brain Effect
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bauer, J., Hohagen, F., Gimmel, E., Bruns, F., Lis, S., Krieger, S., Ambach, W., Guthmann, A., Grunze, H., & Fritsch-Montero, R. (1995). Induction of cytokine synthesis and fever suppresses REM sleep and improves mood in patients with major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 38, 611–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Heyes, M. P., Saito, K., Chen, C. Y., Proescholdt, M. G., Nowak, T. S. Jr., Li, J., Beagles, K. E., Proescholdt, M. A., Zito, M. A., Kawai, K., & Markai, S. P. (1997). Species heterogeneity between gerbils and rats: quinolinate production by microglia and astrocytes and accumulations in response to ischemic brain injury and systemic immune activation. Journal of Neurochemistry, 69, 1519–1529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koslow, S. H., Meinecke, D. L., Lederhendler, I.I., Khachaturian, H., Nakamura, R. K., Karp, D., Vitkovic, L., Glanzman, D. L., & Zalcman, S., Editors (1995). The Neuroscience of Mental Health II, NIH Publication No. 95-4000, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Krueger, J. M. & Majde, J. (1994). Microbial products and cytokines in sleep and fever regulation. Critical Reviews in Immunology 14, 335–379.Google Scholar
- Sakic, B., Denburg, J. A., Denburg, S. D., & Szechtman, H. (1986). Blunted sensitivity to sucrose in autoimmune MRL-1pr mice: A curve shift study. Brain Research Bulletin, 41, 305–311.Google Scholar
- Seligman, S. E. P. (1975). Helplessness San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Swiergel, A. H., Smagin, G. N., Johnson, L. J., & Dunn, A. J. (1997). The role of cytokines in the behavioral responses to endotoxin and influenza virus infection in mice: effects of acute and chronic administration of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Brain Research, IT77, 696–704.Google Scholar
- Turnbull, A. V. & Rivier, C. (1996). Cytokine effects on neuroendocrine axes: influence of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. In N. J. Rothwell(Ed.), Cytokines in the Nervous System (pp. 93–116). Austin: Landes.Google Scholar
- Vitkovic, L. & Koslow, S. H., Editors (1994). Neuroimmunologly and Mental Health. NIH Publication No 94-3774, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar