Dynamic Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines

  • Linda R. Watkins
  • Kien T. Nguyen
  • Jacqueline E. Lee
  • Steven F. Maier
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 461)


Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), are proteins created and released by a wide variety of immune cells in response to infection, inflammation, and tissue damage. These proteins have long been recognized as critical communication factors for orchestrating early responses of immune cells to such immune challenges. More recently, it has become accepted that these same proinflammatory cytokines are key mediators of immune-to-brain communication as well. In this role, proinflammatory cytokines communicate to the brain, thereby orchestrating sickness responses including fever, decreased food, and water intake, increased sleep, increased pain responsivity, and so forth (Kent, Bluthe, Kelley, & Dantzer, 1992; Maier & Watkins, 1998). Thus, it is clear that proinflammatory cytokines are importantly involved in the response of both the immune system and the central nervous system in these situations.


Proinflammatory Cytokine Restraint Stress cAMP Response Element Binding Immobilization Stress Proinflammatory Cytokine Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarstad, H. J., Kolset, S. O., & Seljelid, R. (1991). The effect of stress in vivo on the function of mouse macrophages in vitro. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 33(6), 673–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe, M., Tanaka, Y., Saito, K., Shirakawa, F., Koyama, Y., Goto, S., & Eto, S. (1997). Regulation of interleukin (IL)-1 beta gene transcription induced by IL-1 beta in rheumatoid synovial fibroblast-like cells, E11, transformed with simian virus 40 large T antigen. Journal of Rheumatology, 24(3), 420–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adachi, M., Inoue, H., Arinaga, S., Li, J., Ueo, H., Mori, M., & Akiyoshi, T. (1997). Quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with interleukin-2. Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy, 44, 329–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adcock, I. M., Brown, C. R., Gelder, C. M., Shirasaki, H., Peters, M. J., & Barnes, P. J. (1995). Effects of glucocorticoids on transcription factor activation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. American Journal of Physiology, 268(2 Pt 1), C331–C338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aloe, L., Bracci-Laudiero, L., Alleva, E., Lambiase, A., micera, A., & Tirassa, P. (1994). Emotional stress induced by parachute jumping enhances blood nerve growth factor levels and the distribution of nerve growth factor receptors in lymphocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 91(22), 10440–10444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amano, Y., Lee, S. W., & Allison, A. C. (1993). Inhibition by glucocorticoids of the formation of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6: mediation by decreased mRNA stability. Molecular Pharmacology, 43(2), 176–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arck, P. C., Merali, F. S., Stanisz, A. M., Stead, R. H., Chaouat, G., Manuel, J., & Clark, D. A. (1995). Stress-induced murine abortion associated with substance P-dependent alteration in cytokines in maternal uterine decidua. Biology of Reproduction, 53(4), 814–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arck, P. C., Troutt, A. B., & Clark, D. A. (1997). Soluble receptors neutralizing TNF-alpha and IL-1 block stress-triggered murine abortion. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 37(3), 262–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagby, G. J., Sawaya, D. E., Crouch, L. D., & Shepherd, R. E. (1994). Prior exercise suppresses the plasma tumor necrosis factor response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77(3), 1542–1547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bakouche, O., Moreau, J. L., & Lachman, L. B. (1992). Secretion of IL-1: role of protein kinase C. Journal of Immunology, 148(1), 84–91.Google Scholar
  11. Berman, A. S., Chancellor-Freeland, C., Zhu, G., & Black, P. H. (1996). Substance P primes murine peritoneal macrophages for an augmented proinflammatory cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide. Neuroim-munomodulation, 3(2–3), 141–149.Google Scholar
  12. Berry, W. D., Murphy, J. D., Smith, B. A., Taylor, G. R., & Sonnenfeld, G. (1991). Effect of microgravity modeling on interferon and interleukin responses in the rat. Journal of Interferon Research, 11(4), 243–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyum, A., Wiik, P., Gustavsson, E., Veiby, O. P., Reseland, J., Haugen, A. H., Opstad, P. K., & Byum, A. (1996). The effect of strenuous exercise, calorie deficiency and sleep deprivation on white blood cells, plasma immunoglobulins and cytokines. Scanadavian Journal of Immunology, 43(2), 228–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brantschen, S., Gauchat, J. F., De Weck, A. L., & Stadler, B. M. (1989). Regulatory effect of recombinant interleukin (IL)3 and IL4 on cytokine gene expression of bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. European Journal of Immunology, 19(11), 2017–2023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bury, T. B., Louis, R., Radermecker, M. F., & Pirnay, F. (1996). Blood mononuclear cells mobilization and cytokines secretion during prolonged exercises. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17(2), 156–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Busso, N., Collart, M., Vassalli, J. D., & Belin, D. (1987). Antagonist effect of RU 486 on transcription of glucocorticoid-regulated genes. Experimental Cell Research, 173(2), 425–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cahill, C. M., Waterman, W. R., Xie, Y., Auron, P. E., & Calderwood, S. K. (1996). Transcriptional repression of the prointerleukin 1β gene by heat shock factor 1. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(40), 24874–24879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Camus, G., Poortmans, J., Nys, M., Deby-Dupont, G., Duchateau, J., Deby, C., & Lamy, M. (1997). Mild endotoxaemia and the inflammatory response induced by a marathon race. Clininical Science (Colch), 92(4), 415–422.Google Scholar
  19. Cannon, J. G., Evans, W. J., Hughes, V. A., Meredith, C. N., & Dinarello, C. A. (1986). Physiological mechanisms contributing to increased interleukin-1 secretion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 61(5), 1869–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caput, D., Beutler, B., Hartog, K., Thayer, R., Brown-Shimer, S., & Cerami, A. (1986). Identification of a common nucleotide sequence in the 3′-untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 83, 1670–1674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., Leclercq, R., Brasseur, M., Duchateau, J., & Newsholme, E. A. (1997). Some aspects of the acute phase response after a marathon race, and the effects of glutamine supplementation. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 75(1), 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chancellor-Freeland, C., Zhu, G. F., Kage, R., Beller, D. I., Leeman, S. E., & Black, P. H. (1995). Substance P and stress-induced changes in macrophages. Annal of the New York Academy of Sciences, 771, 472–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandra, G., Cogswell, J. P., Miller, L. R., Godlevski, M. M., Stinnett, S. W., Noel, S. L., Kadwell, S. H., Kost, T. A., & Gray, J. G. (1995). Cyclic AMP signaling pathways are important in IL-1 beta transcriptional regulation. Journal of Immunology, 155(10), 4535–4543.Google Scholar
  24. Chantry, D., Turner, M., Abney, E., & Feldmann, M. (1989). Modulation of cytokine production by transforming growth factor-beta. Journal of Immunology, 142(12), 4295–4300.Google Scholar
  25. Cheng, G. J., Morrow-Tesch, J. L., Beller, D. I., Levy, E. M., & Black, P. H. (1990). Immunosuppression in mice induced by cold water stress. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 4(4), 278–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chin, J. & Kostura, M. J. (1993). Dissociation of IL-1 β synthesis and secretion in human blood monocytes stimulated with bacterial cell wall products. Journal of Immunology, 151, 5574–5585.Google Scholar
  27. Chujor, C. S., Klein, L., & Lam, C. (1996). Selective inhibition of interleukin-1 beta gene expression in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by interferon-gamma. European Journal of Immunology, 26(6), 1253–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cogswell, J. P., Godlevski, M. M., Wisely, G. V., Clay, W. C., Leesnitzer, L. M., Ways, J. P., & J.G, G. (1994). NF-kappa B regulates IL-1 beta transcription through a consensus NF-kappa B binding site and a non-consensus CRE-like site. Journal of Immunology 153(2), 712–723.Google Scholar
  29. Collart, M. A., Belin, D., Vassalli, J. D., de Kossodo, S., & Vassalli, P. (1986). Gamma interferon enhances macrophage transcription of the tumor necrosis factor/cachectin, interleukin-1, and urokinase genes, which are controlled by short-lived repressors. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 164(6), 2113–2118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Colotta, F., Re, F, Muzio, M., Bertini, R., Polentarutti, N., Sironi, M., Giri, J. G., Dower, S. K., Sims, J. E., & Mantovani, A. (1993). Interleukin-1 Type II Receptor: A Decoy Target for IL-1 That is Regulated by IL-4. Science, 261, 472–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colotta, F., Re, F., Muzio, M., Polentarutti, N., Minty, A., Caput, D., Ferrara, P., & Mantovani, A. (1994). Interleukin-13 induces expression and release of interleukin-1 decoy receptor in human polymorphonu-clear cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269(17), 12403–12406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Crump, J. W, Geist, L. J., Auron, P. E., Webb, A. C., Stinski, M. F, & Hunninghake, G. W. (1992). The immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus require only proximal promoter elements to upregulate expression of interleukin-1 beta. American Journal of Respiratory Cell Molecular Biology, 6(6), 674–677.Google Scholar
  33. Cunnick, J. E., Kojic, L. D., & Hughes, R. A. (1994). Stress-induced changes in immune function are associated with increased production of an interleukin-1-like factor in young domestic fowl. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 8(2), 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. DeRijk, R., Michelson, D., Karp, B., Petrides, J., Galliven, E., Deuster, P., Paciotti, G., Gold, P. W, & Sternberg, E. M. (1997). Exercise and circadian rhythm-induced variations in plasma cortisol differentially regulate interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in humans: high sensitivity of TNF-alpha and resistance of IL-6. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82(7), 2182–2191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeRijk, R. H., Boelen, A., Tilders, F J., & Berkenbosch, F. (1994). Induction of plasma interleukin-6 by circulating adrenaline in the rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 19(2), 155–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dinarello, C. A. (1992). Dissociation of transcription from translation of human IL-1 beta: induction of steady state mRNA by adherence or recombinant C5a in the absence of translation. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 200(2), 228–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dobbin, J. P., Harth, M., McCain, G. A., Martin. R. A., & Cousin, K. (1991). Cytokine production and lymphocyte transformation during stress. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 5(4), 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dobbs, C. M., Feng, N., Beck, F. M., & Sheridan, J. F. (1996). Neuroendocrine regulation of cytokine production during experimental influenza viral infection: effects of restraint stress-induced elevation in endogenous corticosterone. Journal of Immunology, 157(5), 1870–1877.Google Scholar
  39. Donnelly, R. P., Fenton, M. J., Kaufman, J. D., & Gerrard, T. L. (1991). IL-1 expression in human monocytes is transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally regulated by IL-4. Journal of Immunology, 146(10), 3431–3436.Google Scholar
  40. Drenth, J. P., VanUum, S. H., VanDeuren, M., & Pesman, G. J. (1995). Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but downregulates ex vivoTNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79, 1497–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dufaux, B. & Order, U. (1989). Plasma elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin, neopterin, tumor necrosis factor, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor after prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(6), 434–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dugue, B., Leppanen, E. A., Teppo, A. M., Fyhrquist, F., & Grasbeck, R. (1993). Effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukins-1 beta and 6, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, anti-diuretic hormone, and serum cortisol. Scandanavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigations, 53(6), 555–561.Google Scholar
  43. Elias, J. A., Reynolds, M. M., Kotloff, R. M., & Kern, J. A. (1989). Fibroblast interleukin-1 beta: synergistic stimulation by recombinant interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and posttranscriptional regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 86(16), 6171–6175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Espersen, G. T., Elbaek, A., Ernst, E., Toft, E., Kaalund, S., Jersild, C., & Grunnet. N. (1990). Effect of physical exercise on cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. Acta Pathology Microbiology Immunology Scandanavia, 98(5), 395–400.Google Scholar
  45. Espersen, G. T., Elbaek, A., Schmidt-Olsen, S., Ejlersen, E., Vanning, K., & Grunnet, N. (1996). Short-term changes in the immune system of elite swimmers under competition conditions. Different immunomodulation induced by various types of sport. Scandanavian Journal of Medical Science of Sports, 6(3), 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Evans, C. H. & Robbins, P. D. (1994). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and its delivery by gene transfer. Receptor, 4(1), 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fantuzzi, G., Di Santo, E., Sacco, S., Genigni, F., & Ghezzi, P. (1995). Role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the regulation of TNF production in mice. Effect of stress and inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoids. Journal of Immunology, 155(7), 3552–3555.Google Scholar
  48. Fenton, M. J. (1992). Review: transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of interleukin-1 gene expression. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 14(3), 401–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fenton, M. J., Vermeulen, M. W., Clark, B. D., Webb, A. C., & Auron. P. E. (1988). Human pro-IL-1 beta gene expression in monocytic cells is regulated by two distinct pathways. Journal of Immunology, 140(7), 2267–2273.Google Scholar
  50. Fernandez, M. C., Walters, J., & Marucha, P. (1996). Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of GM-CSF-induced IL-1 beta gene expression in PMN. J Leukocyte Biology, 59(4), 598–603.Google Scholar
  51. Ferrari, D., Chiozzi, P., Falzoni, S., Dal Susino, M., Melchiorri. L., Baricordi, O. R., & Di Virgilio, F. (1997). Extracellular ATP triggers IL-1 beta release by activating the purinergic P2Z receptor of human macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 159(3), 1451–1458.Google Scholar
  52. Gabay, C., Smith, M. F., Eidlen, D., & Arend, W. P. (1997). Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an acute-phase protein. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 99(12), 2930–2940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gabellec, M. M., Jafarian-Tehrani, M, Griffais, R., & Haour, F. (1996). Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein transcripts in the brain and spleen: kinetics after peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice. Neuroimmunomodulation, 3, 304–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gannon, G. A., Rhind, S. G., Suzui, M., Shek, P. M., & Shephard, R. J. (1997). Circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and cytokines following competitive cycling. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 22(2), 133–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gayle, D., Ilyin, S. E., & Plata-Salaman, C. R. (1997). Central nervous system IL-1 beta system and neuropeptide Y mRNAs during IL-1 beta-induced anorexia in rats. Brain Research Bulletin, 44, 311–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Geiger, T., Rordorf, C., Galakatos, N., Seligmann, B., Henn, R., Lazdins, J., & Vosbeck, K. (1992). Recombinant human C5a induces transcription but not translation of interleukin-1 beta mRNA in human monocytes. Research in Immunology, 143, 117–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Glaser, R., Rice, J., Speicher, C. E., Stout, J. C., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1986). Stress depresses interferon production by leukocytes concomitant with a decrease in natural killer cell activity. Behavioral Neurosciences, 100, 675–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gorospe, M., Kumar, S., & Baglioni, C. (1993). Tumor necrosis factor increases stability of interleukin-1 mRNA by activating protein kinase C. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268(9), 6214–6220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen, pituitary, and brain of mice. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 9(4), 292–303.Google Scholar
  60. Greenfeder, S. A., Nunes, P., Kwee, L., Labow, M., Chizzonite, R. A., & Ju, G. (1995). Molecular cloning and characterization of a second subunit of the interleukin-1 receptor complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 13757–13765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Griffiths, R. J., Stam, E. J., Downs, J. T., & Otterness, I. G. (1995). ATP induces the release of IL-1 from LPS-primed cells in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 154(6), 2821–2828.Google Scholar
  62. Haahr, P. M., Pedersen, B. K., Fomsgaard, A., Tvede, N., Diamant, M., Klarlund, K., Halkjaer-Kristensen, J., & Bendtzen, K. (1991). Effect of physical exercise on in vitro production of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, and interferon-gamma. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(2), 223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hazuda, D. J., Strickler, J., Kueppers, F., Simon, P. L., & Young, P. R. (1990). Processing of precursor interleukin-1 beta and inflammatory disease. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265(11), 6318–6322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Herzyk, D. J., Allen, J. N., Marsh, C. B., & Wewers, M. D. (1992). Macrophage and monocyte IL1-beta regulation differs at multiple sites. Messenger RNA expression, translation, and post-translational processing. Journal of Immunology, 149, 3052–3058.Google Scholar
  65. Hetier, E., Ayala, J., Bousseau, A., & Prochiantz, A. (1991). Modulation of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor expression by beta-adrenergic agonists in mouse ameboid microglial cells. Experimental Brain Research, 86(2), 407–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hiscott, J., Marois, J., Garoufalis, J., D’Addario, M., Roulston, A., Kwan, I., Pepin, N., Lacoste, J., Nguyen, H., Bensi, G., & Fenton, M. (1993). Characterization of a functional NF-kappa B site in the human interleukin-1 beta promoter: evidence for a positive autoregulatory loop. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 13(10), 6231–6240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Home, L., Bell, G, Fisher, B., Warren, S., & Janowska-Wieczorek, A. (1997). Interaction between cortisol and tumour necrosis factor with concurrent resistance and endurance training. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(4), 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Huang, J., Gao, X., Li, S., & Cao, Z. (dy1997). Recruitment of IRAK to the interleukin-1 receptor complex requires interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 12829–12832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hunninghake, G. W., Monks, B. G, Geist, L. J., Monick, M. M., Monroy, M. A., Stinski, M. F., Webb, A. C., Dayer, J. M., Auton, P. E., & Fenton, M. J. (1992). The functional importance of a cap site-proximal region of the human prointerleukin-1 beta gene is defined by viral protein transactivation. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 12(8), 3439–3448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Iwaz, K., Kouassi, E., Lafont, S., & Revillard, J. P. (1990). Elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels independently down regulates IL-1, IL-2, and IL-2 receptor (CD25) synthesis. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 12(6), 631–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jansky, L., Pospisilova, D., Honzova, S., Ulicny, B., Sramek, P., Zeman, V., & Kaminkova, J. (1996). Immune system of cold-exposed and cold-adapted humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 72(5–6), 445–450.Google Scholar
  72. Jenkins, J. K., Drong, R. F., Shuck, M. E., Bienkowski, M. J., Slightom, J. L., Arend, W. P., & Smith, M. F. J. (1997). Intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist promoter: cell type-specific and inducible regulatory regions. Journal of Immunology, 158(2), 748–755.Google Scholar
  73. Kang, K., Hammerbert, C., & Cooper, K. D. (1996). Differential regulation of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist in HaCaT keratinocytes by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta 1. Experimental Dermatology, 5(4), 218–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kaushansky, K., Broudy, V. C., Harlan, J. M., & Adamson, J. W. (1988). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-beta (lymphotoxin) stimulate the production of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1 in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 141(10), 3410–3415.Google Scholar
  75. Keane, K. M., Giegel, D. A., Lipinski, W. J., Callahan, M. G., & Shivers, B. D. (1995). Cloning, tissue expression, and regulation of rat interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Cytokine, 7(2), 105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kent, S., Bluthe, R.-M., Kelley, K. W., & Dantzer, R. (1992). Sickness behavior as a new target for drug development. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 13, 24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kern, J. A., Lamb, R. J., Reed, J. C., Daniele, R. P., & Nowell, P. C. (1988). Dexamethasone inhibition of interleukin 1 beta production by human monocytes. Posttranscriptional mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 81(1), 237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Khlusov, I. A., Dygai, A. M., & Goldberg, E. D. (1993). The adrenergic regulation of interleukin production by bone marrow cells during immobilization stress. Bioligcal and Experimental Biology and Medicine, 116(12), 570–572.Google Scholar
  79. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., Gravenstein, S., Malarkey, W. B., & Sheridan, J. (1996). Chronic stress alters the immune response to influenza virus vaccine in older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 93(7), 3043–3047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., Malarkey, W. B., Mercado, A. M., & Glaser, R. (1995). Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. Lancet, 346(8984), 1194–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kimberlin, D. W., Willis, S. A., Jr., M. G. H., & Nisen, P. D. (1995). Protein synthesis-dependent induction of interleukin-1 beta by lipopolysaccharide is inhibited by dexamethasone via mRNA destabilization in human astroglial cells. Journal of Clinical Immunology, 15, 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kitamura, H., Konno, A., Morimatsu, M., Jung, B. D., Kimura, K., & Saito, M. (1997). Immobilization stress increases hepatic IL-6 expression in mice. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications, 238(3), 707–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kluger, M. J., Rudolph, K., Soszynski, D., Conn, C. A., Leon, L. R., Kozak, W., Wallen, E. S., & Moseley, P. L. (1997). Effect of heat stress on LPS-induced fever and tumor necrosis factor. American Journal of Physiology, 273, R858–R863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Knudsen, P. I., Dinarello, C. A., & Strom, T. B. (1986). Prostaglandins posttranscriptionally inhibit monocyte expression of interleukin 1 activity by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Journal of Immunology, 137(10), 3189–3194.Google Scholar
  85. Koj, A. (1996). Initiation of acute phase response and synthesis of cytokines. Biochimica. Biophysica Acta, 1317, 84–94.Google Scholar
  86. Kopydlowski, K. M, McVey, D. S., Woods, K. M., Iandolo, J. J., & Chapes, S. K. (1992). Effects of antiorthostatic suspension and corticosterone on macrophage and spleen cell function. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 52(2), 202–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Korherr, C., Hofmeister, R., Wesche, H., & Falk. W. (1997). A critical role for interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in interleukin-1 signaling. European Journal of Immunology, 27, 262–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Korneva, E. A., Rybakina, E. G., Fomicheva, E. E., Kozinets, I. A., & Shkhinek, E. K. (1992). Altered interleukin-1 production in mice exposed to rotation stress. International Journal of Tissue Reactivity, 14(5), 219–224.Google Scholar
  89. Korneva, E. A., Rybakina, E. G., Orlov, D. S., Shamova, O. V., Shanin, S. N., & Kokryakov, V. N. (1997). Interleukin-1 and defensins in thermoregulation, stress, and immunity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 813, 465–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Koyama, Y., Tanaka, Y., Saito, K., Abe, M., Nakatsuka, K., Morimoto, I., Auron, P. E., & Eto, S. (1996). Crosslinking of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) induces AP-1 activation and IL-lbeta transcription. Journal of Immunology, 157(11), 5097–5103.Google Scholar
  91. Krakauer, T. (1996). Evidence for protein kinase C pathway in the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to cholera toxin. Cellular Immunology, 172(2), 224–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kruys, V., Marinx, O., Shaw, G., Deschamps, J., & Huez, G. (1989). Translational blockade imposed by cytokine-derived UA-rich sequences. Science, 245, 852–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kusnecov, A. W, Shurin, M. R., Armfield, A., Litz, J., Wood, P., Zhou, D., & Rabin, B. S. (1995). Suppression of lymphocyte mitogenesis in different rat strains exposed to footshock during early diurnal and nocturnal time periods. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20(8), 821–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kvernmo, H., Olsen, J. O., & Osterud, B. (1992). Changes in blood cell response following strenuous physical exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 64(4), 318–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Laliberte, R., Perregaux, D., Svensson, L., Pazoles, C. J., & Gabel, C. A. (1994). Tenidap modulates cytoplasmic pH and inhibits anion transport in vitro II. Inhibitation of IL-1 beta production from ATP-treated monocytes and macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 153(5), 2168–2179.Google Scholar
  96. Laliberte, R. E., Perregaux, D. G., McNiff, P., & Gabel, C. A. (1997). Human monocyte ATP-induced IL-1 beta posttranslational processing is a dynamic process dependent on in vitro growth conditions. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 62(2), 227–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Laye, S., Goujon, E., Combe, G, VanHoy, R., Kelley, K. W., Parnet, P., & Dantzer, R. (1996). Effects of lipopolysaccharide and glucocorticoids on expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme in the pituitary and brain of mice. J Neuroimmunology, 68(1–2), 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lebedeva, T. V. & Singh, A. K. (1997). Constitutive activity of the murine IL-1 beta promoter is regulated by a transcriptional repressor. Biochimica Biophysica Acta, 1353(1), 32–38.Google Scholar
  99. Lee, S. W., Tsou, A. P., Chan, H., Thomas, J., Petrie, K., Eugui, E. M., & Allison, A. C. (1988). Glucocorticoids selectively inhibit the transcription of the interleukin-1 beta gene and decrease the stability of interleukin-1 beta mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 85(4), 1204–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. LeMay, L. G., Vander, A. J., & Kluger, M. J. (1990). The effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukin-6 activity in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 47(5), 957–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Levine, S. J., Benfield, T., & Shelhamer, J. H. ( 1996 ). Corticosteroids induce intracellular interleukin-1 receptor antagonist type I expression by a human airway epithelial cell line. American Journal of Respiratory and Cellular Molecular Biology, 15(2), 245–251.Google Scholar
  102. Levine, S. J., Wu, T., & Shelhamer, J. H. (1997). Extracellular release of the type I intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist from human airway epithelial cells: differential effects of IL-4, IL-13, IFN-gamma, and corticosteroids. Journal of Immunology, 158(12), 5949–5957.Google Scholar
  103. Lewicki, R., Tchorzewski, H., Majewska, E., Nowak, Z., & Baj, Z. (1988). Effect of maximal physical exercise on T-lymphocyte subpopulations and on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in vitro. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 9, 114–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Liao, J., Keiser, J. A., Scales, W. E., Kunkel, S. L., & Kluger, M. J. (1995a). Role of corticosterone in TNF and IL-6 production in isolated perfused rat liver. American Journal of Physiology, 268, R699–R706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Liao, J., Keiser, J. A., Scales, W. E., Kunkel, S. L., & Kluger, M. J. (1995b). Role of epinephrine in TNF and IL-6 production from isolated perfused rat liver. American Journal of Physiology, 268, R896–R901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Liu, C., Chalmers, D., Maki, R., & DeSouza, E. B. (1996). Rat homolog of mouse interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein: cloning, localization, and modulation studies. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 66, 41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lorenz, J. J., Furdon, P. J., Taylor, J. D., Verghese, M. W., Chandra, G., Kost, T. A., Haneline, S. A., Roner, L. A., & Gray, J. G. (1995). A cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate signal is required for the induction of IL-1 beta by TNF-alpha in human monocytes. Journal of Immunology, 155(2), 836–844.Google Scholar
  108. Lovenberg, T. W., Crowe, P. D., Liu, C., Chalmers, D. T., Liu, X. J., Liaw, C., Clevenger, W., Oltersdorf, T., DeSouza, E. B., & Maki, R. A. (1996). Cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel interleukin-1 receptor related protein (IL lR-rp2). Journal of Neuroimmunology, 70, 113–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Maier, S. F. & Watkins, L. R. (1998). Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bi-directional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychological Review, 105, 83–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mantovani, A. & Colotta, F. (1995). Cloning and characterization of a new isoform of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 182(2), 623–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Martin, F. C., Charles, A. C., Sanderson, M. J., & Merrill, J. E. (1992). Substance P stimulates IL-1 production by astrocytes via intracellular calcium. Brain Research, 599(1), 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McCarthy, D. O., Ouimet, M. E., & Daun, J. M. (1992). The effects of noise stress on leukocyte function in rats. Research in Nursing and Health, 15, 131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McCracken, B. A., Gaskins, H. R., Ruwe-Kaiser, P. J., Klasing, K. C., & Jewell, D. E. (1995). Diet-dependent and diet-independent metabolic responses underlie growth stasis of pigs at weaning. Journal of Nutrition, 125(11), 2838–2845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mekaouche, M., Givalois, L., Barbanel, G., Siaud, P., Maurel, D., Malaval, F., Bristow, A. F., Boissin, J., Assenmacher, I., & Ixart, G. (1994). Chronic restraint enhances interleukin-1-beta release in the basal state and after an endotoxin challenge, independently of adrenocorticotropin, and corticosterone release. Neuroimmunomodulation, I, 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Miller, D. K., Calaycay, J. R., Chapman, K. T., Howard, A. D., Kostura, M. J., Molineaux, S. M., & Thronberry, N. A. (1993a). The IL-1 beta converting enzyme as a therapeutic target. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 696, 133–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Miller, E. S., Koebel, D. A., & Sonnenfeld, G. (1993b). The metabolic Stressor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) enhances LPS-stimulated cytokine production in mice. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 7(4), 317–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Minami, M., Kuraishi, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Nakai, S., Hirai, Y., & Satoh, M. (1991). Immobilization stress induces interleukin-1 beta mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. Neuroscience Letters, 123(2), 254–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Miossec, P., Briolay, J., Dechanet, J., Wijdenes, J., Martinez-Valdez, H., & Banchereau, J. (1992). Inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins by interleukin-4 in an ex vivo model of rheumatoid synovitis. Arthritis and Rheumatology. 35(8), 874–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mizutani, H., Schechter, N., Lazarus, G., Black, R. A., & Kupper, T. S. (1991). Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 174(4), 821–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Muzio, M., Re, F., Sironi, M., Polentarutti, N., Minty, A., Caput, D., Ferrara, P., Mantovani, A., & Colotta, F. (1994a). Interleukin-13 induces the production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-lra) and the expression of the mRNA for the intracellular (keratinocyte) form of IL-lra in human myelomonocytic cells. Blood, 83(7), 1738–1743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Muzio, M., Sironi, M., Polentarutti, N., Mantovani, A., & Colotta, F. (1994b). Induction by transforming growth factor-beta 1 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and of its intracellular form in human polymorphonuclear cells. European Journal of Immunology, 24(12), 3194–3198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Natelson, B. H., Zhou, X., Ottenweller, J. E., Bergen, M. T., Sisto, S. A., Drastal, S., Tapp, W. N., & Gause, W. L. (1996). Effect of acute exhausting exercise on cytokine gene expression in men. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 17(4) 299–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Newton, R., Adcock, I. M., & Barnes, P. J. (1996). Superinduction of NF-kappa B by actinomycin D andcycloheximide in epithelial cells. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, 218(2), 518–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nguyen, K. T., Deak, T., Owens, S. M., Kohno, T., Fleshner, M., Watkins, L. R., & Maier, S. F. (1998). Exposure to acute stress induces brain interleukin-1 beta protein in the rat. Journal of Neurosciences, 18, 2239–2246.Google Scholar
  125. Northoff, H., Weinstock, C., & Berg, A. (1994). The cytokine response to strenuous exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(Suppl 3), S167–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ohmori, Y. & Hamilton, T. A. (1992). Ca2+ and calmodulin selectively regulate lipopolyysaccharide-inducible cytokine mRNA expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 148(2), 538–545.Google Scholar
  127. Ohmori, Y., Strassman, G., & Hamilton, T. A. (1990). cAMP differentially regulates expression of mRNA encoding IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta in murine peritoneal macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 145(10), 3333–3339.Google Scholar
  128. Okamoto, H., Oh, C., & Nakano, K. (1990). Possible involvement of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate and extracellular calcium ions in histamine stimulation of interleukin-1 release from macrophage-like P388D1 cells. Immunology, 70(2), 186–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Oster, W., Brach, M. A., Gruss, H. J., Mertelsmann, R., & Herrmann, F. (1992). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) expression in human blood mononuclear phagocytes is differentially regulated by granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), M-CSF, and IL-3. Blood, 79(5), 1260–1265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Paez, P. M., Sauer, J., Perez, C. C., Finkielman, S., Stalla, G. K., Holsboer, F., & Arzt, E. (1995). Corticotropin-releasing hormone differentially modulates the interleukin-1 system according to the level of tnonocyte activation by endotoxin. Endocrinology, 136(12), 5504–5510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pan, Z. K., Zuraw, B. L., Lung, C. C., Prossnitz, E. R., Browning, D. D., & Ye, R. D. (1996). Bradykinin stimulates NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-1 beta gene expression in cultured human fibroblasts. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 98(9), 2042–2049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Papanicolaou, D. A., Petrides, J. S., Tsigos, C., Bina. S., Kalogeras, K. T., Wilder, R., Gold, P. W, Deuster, P. A., & Chrousos, G. P. (1996). Exercise stimulates interleukin-6 secretion: inhibition by glucocorticoids and correlation with catecholamines. American Journal of Physiology, 271(3 Pt 1), E601–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Parnet, P., Garka, K. E., Bonnert, T. P., Dower, S. K., & Sims. J. E. (1996). IL-IRrp is a novel receptor-like molecule similar to the type I interleukin-1 receptor and its homologues T1/ST2 and IL-1R AcP. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 3967–3970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Perregaux, D. G., Laliberte, R. E., & Gabel, C. A. (1996a). Human monocyte interleukin-1 beta posttranslational processing. Evidence of a volume-regulated response. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(147), 29830–29838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Perregaux, D. G., Svensson, L., & Gabel, C. A. (1996b). Tenidap and other anion transport inhibitors disrupt cytolytic T lymphocyte-mediated IL-1 beta post-translational processing. Journal of Immunology, 157(1), 57–64.Google Scholar
  136. Persoons, J. H., Schornagel, K., Breve, J., Berkenbosch, F, & Kraal, G. (1995). Acute stress affects cytokines and nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages differently. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 152(2), 619–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Raingeaud, J., Gupta, S., Rogers, J. S., Dickens, M., Han, J., & Ulevitch, R. J. (1995). Proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 7420–7426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rall, L. C., Roubenoff, R., Cannon. J. G., Abad, L. W, Dinarello, C. A., & Meydani, S. N. (1996). Effects of progressive resistance training on immune response in aging and chronic inflammation. Medical Science and Sports Exercise, 28(11), 1356–1365.Google Scholar
  139. Ray, A. & Prefontaine, K. E. (1994). Physical association and functional antagonism between the p65 subunit of transcription factor NF-kappa B and the glucocorticoid receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 752–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Re, F., Mengozzi, M., Muzio, M., Dinarello, C. A., Mantovani, A., & Colotta, F. (1993). Expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-lra) by human circulating polymorphonuclear cells. European Journal of Immunology. 23(2), 570–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Re. F., Muzio, M., DeRossi, M., Polentarutti, N., Giri, J. G., Mantovani, A., & Colotta, F. (1994). The type II “receptor” as a decoy target for interleukin-1 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: characterization of induction by dexamethasone and ligand binding properties of the released decoy receptor. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 179(2), 739–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Reikerstorfer, A., Holz, H., Stunnenberg, H. G., & Busslinger, M. (1995). Low affinity binding of interleukin-1 beta and intracellular signaling via NF-kappa B identify Fit-1 as a distant member of the interleukin-1 receptor family. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 17645–17648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ribeiro, S. P., Villar, J., Downey, G. P., Edelson, J. D., & Slutsky, A. S. (1996). Effects of the stress response in septic rats and LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages: evidence for TNF-alpha posttranslational regulation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 154(6 Pt 1), 1843–1850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rivier, A., Pene, J., Chanez, P., Anselme, F., Caillaud, C., Prefaut, C., Godard, P., & Bousquet, J. (1994). Release of cytokines by blood monocytes during strenuous exercise. International journal of Sports Medicine, 15(4), 192–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rizzo, M. T. & Carlo-Stalla, C. (1996). Arachidonic acid mediates interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of the c-jun amino-terminal kinases in stromal cells. Blood, 88, 3792–3800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Rosette, C. & Karin, M. (1996). Ultraviolet light and osmotic stress: activation of the JNK cascade through multiple growth facto and cytokine receptors. Science, 274, 1194–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sambo, P., Fadlon, E. J., Sironi, M., Matteucci, C., Introna, M., Mantovani, A., & Colotta, F. (1996). Reactive oxygen intermediates cause rapid release of the interleukin-1 decoy receptor from human myelomonocytic cells. Blood, 87(5), 1682–1686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Scheinman, R. I., Gualberto, A., Jewell, C. M., Cidlowski, J. A., & Baldwin, A. S. J. (1995). Characterization of mechanisms involved in transrepression of NF-kappa B by activated glucocorticoid receptors. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 15(2), 943–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Schluns, K. S., Cook, J. E., & Le, P. T. (1997). TGF-beta differentially modulates epidermal growth factor-mediated increases in leukemia-inhibitory factor, IL-6, IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 beta in human thymic epithelial cells. Journal of Immunology, 158(6), 2704–2712.Google Scholar
  150. Schulte, H. M., Bamberger, C. M., Elsen, H., Herrmann, G., Bamberger, A. M., & Barth, J. (1994). Systemic interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-2 secretion in response to acute stress and to corticotropin-releasing hormone in humans. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 24(11), 773–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Serkkola, E. & Hurme, M. (1993). Synergism between protein-kinase C and cAMP-dependent pathways in the expression of the interleukin-1 beta gene is mediated via the activator-protein-1 (AP-1) enhancer activity. European Journal of Biochemistry, 213(1), 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Serkkola, E. M. (1995). Regulation of interleukin-1 gene expression by protein kinase C and cyclic AMP. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56(1), 230.Google Scholar
  153. Shapira, L., Takashiba, S., Champagne, C., Amar, S., & VanDyke, T. E. (1994). Involvement of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase in lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production by human monocytes. Journal of Immunology, 153, 1818–1824.Google Scholar
  154. Shintani, F, Nakaki, T., Kanba, S., Sato, K., Yagi, G., Shiozawa, M., Aiso, S., Kato, R., & Asai, M. (1995). Involvement of interleukin-1 in immobilization stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and in release of hypothalamic monoamines in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 1961–1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Shizuya, K., Komori, T., Fujiwara, R., Miyahara, S., Ohmori, M., & Nomura, J. (1997). The influence of restraint stress on the expression of mRNAs for IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor in the hypothalamus and midbrain of the rat. Life Sciences, 61(10), PL 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sihvola, M. & Hurme, M. (1989). The effect of gamma interferon on interleukin-1 release of human monocytes. Dependence on the activating agent and correlation to the mRNA levels. Scandanavian Journal of Immunology, 29(6), 689–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Singer, I.I., Scott, S., Chin, J., Bayne, E. K., Limjuco, G., Weidner, J., Miller, D. K., Chapman, K., & Kostura, M. J. (1995). The interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) is localized on the external cell surface membranes and in the cytoplasmic ground substance of human monocytes by immuno-electron microscopy. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 182(5), 1447–1459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sirko, S. P., Schindler, R., Doyle, M. J., Weisman, S. M., & Dinarello, C. A. (1991). Transcription, translation and secretion of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor: effects of tebufelone, a dual cyclooxyge-nase/5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. European Journal of Immunology, 21(2), 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Slack, J. L., Nemunaitis, X, Andrews, D. F. d., Singer, J. W., & Andrews, D. F. (1990). Regulation of cytokine and growth factor gene expression in human bone marrow stromal cells transformed with simian virus 40. Blood, 75(12), 2319–2327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith, J. A., Telford, R. D., Baker, M. S., Hapel, A. J., & Weidemann, M. J. (1992). Cytokine immunoreactivity in plasma does not change after moderate endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 73(4), 1396–1401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith, M. F. J., Kueppers, F., & Lee, J. C. (1991). Differential regulation of interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta mRNA expression in human monocytes: evidence for protein kinase C-dependent and-independent pathways. Lymphokine Cytokine Research, 10, 397–403.Google Scholar
  162. Soszynski, D., Kozak, W., Conn, C. A., Rudolph, K., & Kluger, M. J. (1996). Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists suppress elevation in body temperature and increase in plasma IL-6 in rats exposed to open field. Neuroendocrinology, 63, 459–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Spivak, B., Shohat, B., Mester, R., Avraham, S., Gil-Ad, I., Bleich, A., Valevski, A., & Weizman, A. (1997). Elevated levels of serum interleukin-1 beta in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 42(5), 345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Strulovici, B., Daniel-Issakani, S., Oto, E., Jr., N. J., Chan, H., & Tsou, A. P. (1989). Activation of distinct protein kinase C isozymes by phorbol esters: correlation with induction of interleukin-1 beta gene expression. Biochemistry, 28(8), 3569–3576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sung, S. S. & Walters, J. A. (1991). Increased cyclic AMP levels enhance IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression and protein production in human myelomonocytic cell lines and monocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 88(6), 1915–1923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Suttles, J., Giri, J. G., & Mizel, S. B. (1990). IL-1 secretion by macrophages. Enhancement of IL-1 secretion and processing by calcium ionophores. Journal of Immunology, 144(1), 175–182.Google Scholar
  167. Suzuki, E., Shintani, F., Kanba, S., Asai, M., & Nakaki, T. (1997). Immobilization stress increases mRNA levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in various rat brain regions. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 17(5), 557–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Swantek, J. L., Cobb, M. H., & Geppert, T. D. (1997). Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) is required for lipopolysaccharide stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) translation: glucocorticoids inhibit TNF-alpha translation by blocking JNK/SAPK. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 17, 6274–6282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Symons, J. A., Young, P. R., & Duff, G. W. (1995). Soluble type II interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor binds and blocks processing of IL-1 beta precursor and loses affinity for IL-1 receptor antagonist. Proceedings of the National Academdy of Sciences USA, 92(5), 1714–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Takaki, A., Huang, Q. H., Somogyvari-Vigh, A., & Arimura, A. (1994). Immobilization stress may increase plasma interleukin-6 via central and peripheral catecholamines. Neuroimmunomodulation, 1(6), 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tingsborg, S., Zetterstrom, M., Alheim, K., Hasanvan, H., Schultzberg, M., & Bartfai, T. (1996). Regionally specific induction of ICE mRNA and enzyme activity in the rat brain and adrenal gland by LPS. Brain Research, 712, 153–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tran-Thi, T.-A., Weinhold, L., Weinstock, C., Hoffmann, R., Schulze-Specking, A., Northoff, H., & Decker, K. (1993). Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 in the perfused rat liver. European Cytokine Network, 4, 363–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Tsukada, J., Saito, K., Waterman, W. R., Webb, A. C., & Auron, P. E. (1994). Transcription factors NF-IL6 and CREB recognize a common essential site in the human prointerleukin-1 beta gene. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 14(11), 7285–7297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Tsukada, J., Waterman, W. R., Koyama, Y., Webb, A. C, & Auron, P. E. (1996). A novel STAT-like factor mediates lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 signaling and recognizes a gamma interferon activation site-like element in the IL-1β gene. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 16(5), 2183–2194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Turner, M., Chantry, D., Buchan, G., Barrett, K., & Feldmann, M. (1989). Regulation of expression of human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta genes. Journal of Immunology, 143(11), 3556–3561.Google Scholar
  176. Ullum, H., Haahr, P. M., Diamant, M., Palmo, J., Halkjaer-Kristensen, J., Pedersen, B. K., & Palm, J. (1994). Bicycle exercise enhances plasma IL-6 but does not change IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha pre-mRNA in BMNC. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77(1), 93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. VanDerPool, T., Jansen, J., Endert, E., Sauerwein, H. P., & VanDeventer, S. J. (1994). Noradrenaline inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production in human whole blood. Infection and Immunity, 62, 2046–2050.Google Scholar
  178. vanGool, J., vanVugt, H., Helle, M., & Aarden, L. A. (1990). The relation among stress, adrenalin, interleukin-6, and acute phase proteins in the rat. Clin Immunol Immunopathology, 57(2), 200–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Vannier, E. & Dinarello, C. A. (1993). Histamine enhances interleukin (IL)-l-induced IL-1 gene expression and protein synthesis via H2 receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Comparison with IL-1 receptor antagonist. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 92(1), 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Viac, J., Gueniche, A., Doutremepuich, J. D., Reichert, U., Claudy, A., & Schmitt, D. (1996). Substance P and keratinocyte activation markers: an in vitro approach. Archives of Dermatology Research, 288(2), 85–90.Google Scholar
  181. Viherluoto, J., Palkama, T, Silvennoinen, O., & Hurme, M. (1991). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate decreases the secretion, but not the cell-associated levels, of interleukin-1 beta in lipopolysaccharide-activated human monocytes. Scandanavian Journal of Immunology, 34(1), 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Volpe, F, Clatworthy, J., Kaptein, A., Maschera, B., Griffin, A. M., & Ray, K. (1997). The IL-1 receptor accessory protein is responsible for the recruitment of the interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase to the IL-1/IL-1 receptor I complex. Federation of Experimental Biological Ssciences Letters, 419, 41–44.Google Scholar
  183. Waage, A., Slupphaug, G., & Shalaby, R. (1990). Glucocorticoids inhibit the production of IL-6 from monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. European Journal of Immunology, 20, 2439–2443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Watson, J. M., Lofquist, A. K., Rinehart, C. A., Olsen, J. C, Makarov, S. S., Kaufman, D. G., & Haskill, J. S. (1995). The intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist alters IL-1-inducible gene expression without blocking exogenous signaling by IL-1 beta. Journal of Immunology, 155(9), 4467–4475.Google Scholar
  185. Wesche, H., Neumann, D., Resch, K., & Martin, M. U. (1996). Co-expression of mRNA for type I and type II interleukin-1 receptors and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein correlates to IL-1 responsiveness. Federation of Experimental Biological Ssciences Letters, 391, 104–108.Google Scholar
  186. Willis, S. A. & Nisen, P. D. (1995). Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1 beta transcription by cyclic adenosine monophosphate in human astrocytic cells. Journal of Immunology, 154(3), 1399–1406.Google Scholar
  187. Yamato, K., el-Hajjaoui, Z., & Koeffler, H. P. (1989). Regulation of levels of IL-1 mRNA in human fibroblasts. Journal of Cell Physiology, 139(3), 610–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yoshimura, T., Kurita, C., Nagao, T., Usami, E., Nakao, T., Watanabe, S., Kobayashi, J., Yamazaki, F., Tanaka, H., Inagaki, N., & Nagai, H. (1997). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-beta production by beta-adrenoceptor agonists from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Pharmacology, 54(3), 144–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Zakowski, S. G., McAllister, C. G., Deal, M., & Baum, A. (1992). Stress, reactivity, and immune function in healthy men. Health Psychology, 11(4), 223–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Zhang, G., Zhang, L., & Duff, G. W. (1997). A negative regulatory region containing a glucocorticosteroid response element (nGRE) in the human interleukin-1 beta gene. DNA Cell Biology, 16(2), 145–152.Google Scholar
  191. Zhang, Y. & Rom, W. N. (1993). Regulation of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene by mycobacterial components and lipopolysaccharide is mediated by two nuclear factor-IL-6 motifs. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 13(6), 3831–3837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Zhou, D., Kusnecov, A. W., Shurin, M. R., DePaoli, M., & Rabin, B. S. (1993). Exposure to physical and psychological Stressors elevates plasma interleukin-6: relationship to the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Endocrinology, 133(6), 2523–2530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zhu, G. F., Chancellor-Freeland, C., Berman, A. S., Kage, R., Leeman, S. E., Beller, D. I., & Black, P. H. (1996). Endogenous substance P mediates cold water stress-induced increase in interleukin-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages. Journal of Neuroscience, 16(11), 3745–3752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Zorrilla, E. P., Redei, E., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1994). Reduced cytokine levels and T-cell function in healthy males: relation to individual differences in subclinical anxiety. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 8(4), 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda R. Watkins
    • 1
  • Kien T. Nguyen
    • 1
  • Jacqueline E. Lee
    • 2
  • Steven F. Maier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulder
  2. 2.Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental BiologyUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulder

Personalised recommendations