Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease

Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 218)


Atherosclerotic vascular disease, in particular, coronary heart disease (CHD), is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality in both industrialised and developing countries. In the UK, for example, nearly 170,000 people die each year as a result of CHD (25% of all deaths). Similarly, in the USA, CHD causes around 700,000 (40% of) deaths each year. However, there are very wide variations in the incidence of CHD worldwide. For instance, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) study assessing CHD and risk factors in 38 populations from 21 countries show that age-standardised annual cardiovascular event (fatal and non-fatal) rates (during 1985–1987) in men ranged from 76/100,000 in Beijing, China to 915/100,000 in North Karelia, Finland, and in women, from 30/100,000 in Catalonia, Spain to 256/100,000 in Glasgow, UK. Also, while CHD mortality rates in many industrialised countries have fallen over the past 20–30 years (e.g. by 50–60% in Australia, Canada, Japan and the USA), there have been striking increases in the rates in eastern/central Europe (e.g. 25–35% rises in Romania and Poland) and in developing countries.


Coronary Heart Disease Acute Coronary Syndrome Unstable Angina Tissue Factor Monocyte Count 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Boaz A, Rayner M. Coronary Heart Disease Statistics, British Heart Foundation/Coronary Prevention Group. Statistics Database; 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hennekens CH. Increasing burden of cardiovascular disease: current knowledge and future directions for research on risk factors. Circulation 1998; 97: 1095–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1995. US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA; 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tunstall-Pedoe H, Kuulasmaa K, Amouyel P et al. Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths in the WHO MONICA project. Registration procedures, event rates and case-fatality rates in 38 populations from 21 countries in 4 continents. Circulation 1994; 90: 583–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buja LM. Does atherosclerosis have an infectious eitology? Circulation 1996; 94: 872–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nieminen MS, Mattila K, Valtonen V. Infection and inflammation as risk factors for myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1993; 14(Suppl K): 12–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sumpter MT, Dunn MI. Is coronary artery disease an infectious disease? Chest 1997; 112: 302–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Keys A. Seven countries — a multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Harvard University Press, Boston, USA; 1980.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Criqui MH, Ringel BL. Does diet or alcohol explain the French paradox? Lancet 1994; 344: 1719–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reddy KS. Coronary heart disease in different racial groups. In: Advanced Issues in Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis (Yusuf S, Wilhelmsen L, eds). Euromed Communications Ltd Publishers, Surrey, UK, 1995; pp. 47–60.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barker DJ. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 1995; 311: 171–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1988: Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1998; 37: 35–41.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malinow MR. Homocysteine and arterial occlusive diseases. J Intern Med 1994; 236: 603–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stamler JS, Slivka A. Biological chemistry of thiols in the vasculature and in vascular-related disease. Nutr Rev 1996; 54: 1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H et al. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 230–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harrap SB, Watt GCM. Genetics and risk of coronary heart disease. Med J Aust 1992; 156: 594–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wood D, De Backer G, Faergeman O et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice: Recommendations of the second joint task force of European and other Societies on coronary prevention. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 1434–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gupta S, Camm AJ. Chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease: coincidence, association or causation? BMJ 1997; 314: 1778–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Falk E, Shah PK, Fuster V. Coronary plaque disruption. Circulation 1995; 92: 657–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ambrose JA, Tannenbaum MA, Alexopoulos D et al. Angiographic progression of coronary artery disease and the development of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988; 12: 56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rokitansky C von. A Manual of Pathological Anatomy, Day GE (translator). Vol. 4, The Sydenham Society, London, UK; 1852.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Virchow R. Phloge und Thrombose in Gefassystem, gesammelte Bahandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medicin. Meidinger Sohn and Co. Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, 1856; p. 458.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duguid JB. Thrombosis as a factor in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. J Pathol Bacteriol 1946; 58: 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benditt EP, Benditt JM. Evidence for a monoclonal origin of human atherosclerotic plaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 70: 1753–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ross R, Glomset J. Atherosclerosis and the arterial smooth muscle cell. Proliferation of smooth muscle is a key event in the genesis of the lesions of atherosclerosis. Science 1973; 180: 1332–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: A perspective for the 1990s. Nature 1993; 362: 801–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vogel RA. Coronary risk factors, endothelial function and atherosclerosis: A review. Clin Cardiol 1997; 20: 426–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mora R, Lupu F, Simionescu N. Prelesional events in atherogenesis. Colonisation of apolipoprotein B, unesterised cholesterol and extracellular phospholipid liposomes in the aorta of hyperlipidemic rabbit. Atherosclerosis 1987; 67: 143–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Munro JM, Cotran RS. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: Atherogenesis and inflammation. Lab Invest 1988; 58: 249–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nilsson J. Growth factors and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1986; 62: 185–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steinberg D, Parathasarthy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of LDL that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 915–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faggiotto A, Ross R, Harker L. Studies of hypercholesterolaemia in the non-human primate. I. Changes that lead to fatty streak formation. Arteriosclerosis 1984; 4: 323–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosenfeld ME, Tsukada T, Gown AM, Ross R. Fatty streak initiation in Wantanabe Heritable Hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits Arteriosclerosis 1987; 7: 9–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Masuda J, Ross R. Atherogenesis during low level hypercholesterolaemia in the non-human primate. I. Fatty streak formation. Arteriosclerosis 1990; 10: 164–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berenson GS, Wattingney WA, Tracey RE et al. Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries and cardiovascular risk factors in persons aged 6 to 30 years and studied at necropsy (The Bogalusa Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1992; 70: 851–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Lipoprotein metabolism in the macrophage: implications for cholesterol deposition in atherosclerosis. Ann Rev Biochem 1983; 52: 223–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomas WA, Lee KT, Kim DN. Cell population kinetics in atherogenesis. Cell births and losses in intimal cell mass-derived lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1985; 454: 305–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Azar RR, Waters DD. The inflammatory etiology of unstable angina. Am Heart J 1996; 132: 1101–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Battegay EJ, Raines EW, Seifert RA, Bowen-Pope DF, Ross R. TGF-beta induces bimodal proliferation of connective tissue cells via complex control of an autocrine PDGF loop. Cell 1990; 63: 515–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ross R, Raines EW, Bowen-Pope DF. The biology of platelet-derived growth factor. Cell 1986; 46: 155–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Faruqi RM, DiCorleto PE. Mechanisms of monocyte recruitment and accumulation. Br Heart J 1993; 69(Suppl 1): S19–S29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Valente AJ, Rozek MM, Sprague EA, Schwartz CJ. Mechanisms in intimal monocyte-macrophage recruitment. Circulation 1992; 86(Suppl III): 20–5.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Brien KD, Chait A. The biology of the artery wall in atherogenesis. Med Clin North Am 1994; 78: 41–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Munro JM. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesive interations in inflammatory diseases. Eur Heart J 1993; 14(Suppl K): S72–7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hansson GK. Immune and inflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis. Br Heart J 1993; 69(Suppl 1): S38–S42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hansson GK, Jonasson L, Seifert PS, Stemme S. Immune mechanisms in atheroscelerosis. Arteriosclerosis 1989; 9: 567–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Emeson EE, Robertson AL Jr. T-lymphocytes in aortic and coronary intimas. Their potential role in atherogenesis. Am J Pathol 1988; 130: 369–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clinton SK, Libby P. Cytokines and growth factors in atherogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1992; 116: 1292–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fuster V, Badimon L, Badimon JJ, Chesebro JH. The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 310–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Friedman GD, Klatsky AL, Siegelaub AB. The leukocyte count as a predictor of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 1275–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zalokar JB, Richard JL, Claude JR. Leukocyte count, smoking and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1981; 394: 465–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yarnell JW, Baker IA, Sweetnam PM et al. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies. Circulation 1991; 83: 836–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Phillips AN, Neaton JD, Cook DG, Grimm RH, Shaper AG. Leukocyte count and risk of major coronary heart disease events. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grimm RH, Neaton JD, Ludwig W et al. Prognostic importance of the white blood cell count for coronary, cancer, and all-cause mortality. JAMA 1985; 254: 1932–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kawaguchi H, Mori T, Kawano T et al. Band neutrophil count and the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 1996; 132: 9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ernst E, Hammerschmidt DE, Bagge U, Matrai A, Dormandy JA. Leukocytes and the risk of ischaemic disease. JAMA 1987; 257: 2318–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Craddock PR, Hammerschmidt DE, White JG, Dalmosso AP, Jacob HS. Complement (C5a)-induced granulocyte aggregation in vitro: A possible mechanism of complement-mediated leukostasis amd leukopenia. J Clin Invest 1977; 60: 260–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Weissman G, Smolen JE, Korchak HM. Release of inflammatory mediators from stimulated neutrophils. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sacks T, Moldow CF, Craddock PR, Bowers TK, Jacob HS. Oxygen radical-mediated endothelial cell damage by complement-stimulated granulocytes: an in vitro model of immune vascular damage. J Clin Invest 1978; 61: 1161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Prentice RL, Szatrowski TP, Fujikura T et al. Leukocyte counts and coronary heart disease in a Japanese cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 496–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Olivares R, Ducimetiere P, Claude JR. Monocyte count: a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137: 49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pepys MB, Baltz ML. Acute phase proteins with special reference to C-reactive protein and related proteins (pentaxins) and serum amyloid A protein. Adv Immunol 1983; 34: 141–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pepys MB. The acute phase response and C-reactive protein. In: Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3rd edn (Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG, Warrell DA, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1995; pp. 1527–33.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Heinrich J, Schulte H, Schonfeld R, Kohler E, Assmann G. Association of variables of coagulation, fibrinolysis and acute-phase with atherosclerosis in coronary and peripheral arteries and those arteries supplying the brain. Thromb Haemost 1995; 73: 374–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liuzzo G, Biasucci LM, Gallimore JR et al. The prognostic value of C-reactive and serum amyloid A protein in severe unstable angina. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 417–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haverkate F, Thompson SG, Pyke SD, Gallimore JR, Papys MB. Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events on stable and unstable angina. Lancet 1997; 349: 462–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mendall MA, Patel P, Ballam L et al. C reactive protein and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors: a population based cross sectional study. BMJ 1996; 312: 1061–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Patel P, Mendall MA, Carrington D et al. Association of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors BMJ 1995; 311: 711–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer MJ, Tracy RP, Hennekens CH. Inflammation, aspirin and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 973–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sewell WA, Bird AG, Marshall SE, Chapel HM. Relation of C reactive protein to cardiovascular risk factors: Assays would have to be developed to measure C reactive protein. BMJ 1996; 313: 428 [letter].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hynes RO. Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. Cell 1987; 48: 549–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sanchez-Madrid F, Nagy JA, Robbins E, Simon P, Springer TA. A human leukocyte differentiation antigen family with distinct alpha-subunits and a common beta subunit: The lymphocyte function-associated (LFA-1), the C3bi complement receptor (OKM1/mac-1) and the p150,95 molecule. J Exp Med 1983; 158: 1785–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jang Y, Lincoff AM, Plow EF, Topol EJ. Cell adhesion molecules in coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 24: 1591–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Smith CW, Rothlein R, Hughes BJ et al. Recognition of an endothelial determinant for CD18-dependent human neutrophil adherence and transendothelial migration. J Clin Invest 1988; 82: 1746–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hughes BJ, Hollers CJ, Crockett-Torabi E et al. Recruitment of CD11b/CD18 to neutrophil surface and adherence-dependent cell locomotion. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 1687–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tonnesen MG, Smedly LA, Henson PM. Neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions. J Clin Invest 1984; 74: 1581–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fan ST, Edgington TS. Coupling of the adhesive receptor CD11b/CD18 to functional enhancement of effector macrophage tissue factor response. J Clin Invest 1991; 87: 50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Altieri DC, Edgington TS. The saturable high affinity association of factor X to ADP-stimulated monocytes defines a novel function of the Mac-1 receptor. J Biol Chem 1991; 263: 7007–15.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mazzone A, De Servi S, Ricevuti G et al. Increased expression of neutrophil and monocyte adhesion molecules in unstable coronary artery disease. Circulation 1993; 88: 358–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Michelson JK, Lakkis NM, Villarreal-Levy G, Hughes BJ, Smith CW. Leukocyte activation with platelet adhesion after coronary angioplasty: A mechanism for recurrent disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 28: 345–53.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rivers RP, Hathaway WE, Weston WL. The endotoxin-induced coagulant activity of human monocytes. Br J Haematol 1975; 30: 311–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Drake TA, Hannani K, Fei H, Lavi S, Berliner JA. Minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces tissue factor expression in cultured human endothelial cells. Am J Pathol 1991; 138: 601–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lyberg T, Prydz H, Baklien K, Hoyeraal HM. Effects of immune complex-containing sera from patients with rheumatic diseases on thromboplastin activity of monocytes. Thromb Res 1982; 25: 193–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kornberg A, Catane R, Peller S, Kaufman S, Fridkin M. Tuftsin induces tissue factor-like activity in human mononuclear cells and in monocytic cell lines. Blood 1990; 76: 814–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nemerson Y. Tissue factor and hemostasis. Blood 1988; 71: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brozna JP. Cellular regulation of tissue factor. Blood Coag 1990; 1: 415–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bevilacqua MP, Gimbrone MA Jr. Inducible endothelial functions in inflammation and coagulation. Sem Thromb Haemost 1987; 13: 425–33.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rivers RP, Cattermole HE, Wright I. The expression of surface tissue factor apoprotein by blood monocytes in the course of infections in early infancy. Pediatr Res 1992; 31: 567–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Osterud B, Flaegstad T. Increased tissue thromboplastin activity in monocytes of patients with meningococcal infection: related to an unfavourable prognosis. Thromb Haemost 1983; 49: 5–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lorenzet R, Peri G, Locati D et al. Generation of procoagulant activity by mononuclear phagocytes: a possible mechanism contributing to blood clotting activation within malignant tissues. Blood 1983; 62: 271–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Semeri GG, Abbate R, Gori AM et al. Transient intermittent lymphocyte activation is responsible for the instability of unstable angina. Circulation 1992; 86: 790–7.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Key NS, Vercellotti GM, Winkelmann JC et al. Infection of vascular endothelial cells with herpes simplex virus enhances tissue factor activity and reduces thrombomodulin expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 7095–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dam-Mieras Van DC, Muller AD, Hinsbergh VW et al. The procoagulant response of cytomegalovirus infected endothelial cells. Thromb Haemost 1992; 68: 364–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fryer RH, Schwobe EP, Woods ML, Rodgers GM. Chlamydia species infect human vascular endothelial cells and induce procoagulant activity. J Invest Med 1997; 45: 168–74.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Leatham EW, Bath PM, Tooze JA, Camm AJ. Increased monocyte tissue factor expression in coronary disease. Br Heart J 1995; 73: 10–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Meade TW, Fellows S, Brozovic M et al. Haemostatic function and ischaemic heart disease: principal results of the Northwick Park Heart Study. Lancet 1986; 2: 533–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wilhelmsen L, Svardsudd K, Korsan-Bengsten K et al. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 501–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Thompson S, Kienast J, Pyke S, Heverkate F, Van de Loo J. Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Castelli WP, D’Agostino RB. Fibrinogen and risk of cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Study. JAMA 1987; 258: 1183–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Heinrich J, Balleisen L, Schulte H, Assmann G, Van de Loo J. Fibrinogen and factor VII in the prediction of coronary risk. Results from the PROCAM study in healthy men. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14: 54–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Merlini PA, Bauer KA, Oltrona L et al. Persistent activation of coagulation mechanism in unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Circulation 1994; 90: 61–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Engelberts I, Moller A, Schoen GJ, Van der Linden CJ, Burman WA. Evaluation of measurement of human TNF in plasma by ELISA. Lymphokine Cytokine Res 1991; 10: 69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fuchs D, Weiss G, Wachter H. Neopterin, biochemistry and clinical use as a marker for cellular immune reactions. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1993; 101: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hausen A, Fuchs D, Reibnegger G et al. Neopterin in clinical use. Pteridines 1989; 1: 3–10.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Carstens J, Andersen PL. Changes in serum neopterin and serum beta 2-microglobulin in subjects with lung infections. Eur Respir J 1994; 7: 1233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schwedes U, Teuber J, Schmidt R, Usadel KH. Neopterin as a marker for the activity of antoimmune thyroid diseases. Acta Endocrinol 1986; 111: 51–2.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Denz H, Grunewald K, Thaler J et al. Urinary neopterin as a prognostic marker in haematological neoplasias. Pteridines 1989; 1: 167–70.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Melichar B, Gregor J, Solichova D et al. Increased urinary neopterin in acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1994; 40: 338–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gupta S, Fredericks S, Schwartzman RA et al. Serum neopterin in acute coronary syndromes. Lancet 1997; 349: 1252–3 [letter].PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Samsonov M, Fuchs D, Reibnegger G et al. Patterns of serological markers for cellular immune activation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic myocarditis. Clin Chem 1992; 38: 678–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tatzber F, Rabl H, Koriska K et al. Elevated serum neopterin levels in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1991; 89: 203–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Personalised recommendations