Organ and Metabolic Complications: Trace Elements

  • Allen C. Alfrey


A number of trace element disturbances have been recognized in uremic patients. This has been noted especially in patients receiving long term hemodialysis. There are a number of reasons that the patient with end-stage renal disease is at risk of developing trace element toxicity, as well as deficiency. As a direct result of loss of renal function, elements which are normally eliminated from the body through the kidney are retained. In proteinuric states metal binding proteins are also lost which can result in deficiencies of the elements being transported. With advanced renal failure the normal intestinal barriers, which exclude potentially toxic elements from being absorbed, are compromised. The artificial means by which patients are maintained following the development of endstage renal disease can contribute further to elemental disturbances. Certain elements filtered, but normally retained by tubule function, may be lost across the dialyzing membrane. The body burden of other elements can be enriched from dialysis fluid contaminants, and transported to the patient during the procedure. Some of the elemental alteration from these various mechanisms have been associated with major clinical consequences


Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Uremic Patient Dialysis Fluid Adynamic Bone Disease Peritoneal Dialysis Solution 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen C. Alfrey
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Affairs Medical CenterDenverUSA

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