Immunological and Chronic Inflammatory Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease

  • Béatrice Descamps-Latscha
  • Paul Jungers


In the late fifties, Dammin and coworkers (1) reported increased survival of skin homografts in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), suggesting for the first time that chronic uremia could be associated with a state of immune deficiency. The impaired immunity of ESRD patients has since been widely confirmed by numerous reports (reviewed in (2)) showing an enhanced susceptibility to certain infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and listeriosis, an abnormally high incidence of tumors, anergy in cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and defective responses to vaccines against viral diseases such as influenza and hepatitis. A paradoxical observation is that maintenance dialysis does not improve but rather worsens this state of immune deficiency


Dialysis Patient Hemodialysis Patient Nephrol Dial Transplant Uremic Patient Uremic Toxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dammin GJ, Couch NP, Murray JE: Prolonged survival of skin homografts in uremic patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 64: 967, 1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Herbelin A, Nguyen AT, Zingraff J, Jungers P, Chatenoud L: Immune system dysregulation in uremia. Seminars in Nephrology 14: 253, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Rubin RH: Uremia and host defenses. (Editorial Comment) N Engl J Med 322: 770, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Herbelin A: Long-term dialysis and cellular immunity. A critical survey. Kidney Im 43(Suppl): 135S, 1993Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koch KM: Dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int 41: 1416, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keane WE, Maddy MF: Host defenses and infectious complications in maintenance hemodialysis patients. in Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, 3rd Edition, edited by JF Maher, Dordrecht/Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989, p 865Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldman M, Vanherweghem JL: Bacterial infections in chronic hemodialysis patients: epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects. Adv Nephrol 19: 315, 1990Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haag-Weber M, Horl WH: Uremia and infection: mechanisms of impaired cellular host defense. Nephron 63: 125, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mailloux LU, Bellucci AG, Wilkes BM et al.: Mortality in dialysis patients: analysis of the causes of death. Am J Kidney Dis 18: 326, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lundin AP, Adler AJ, Berlyne GM, Friedman EA: Tuberculosis in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Am J Med 67: 597, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garcia-Leoni ME, Martin-Scapa C, Rodeno P, Vaderrabamo F, Moreno S, Bouza E: High incidence of tuberculosis in renal patients. EurJ Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 9: 283, 1990Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kessler M, Hoen B, Mayeux D, Hestin D, Fontenaille C: Bacteremia in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Nephron 64: 95, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khan IH, Catto GRD: Long-term complications of dialysis. Infections. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 143S, 1993Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bergstrom J: Nutrition and adequacy of dialysis in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 261S, 1993Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haag-Weber M, Horl WH: Altered cellular host defence in malnutrition and uremia. Contrib Nephrol 98: 105, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gafter U, Kalechman Y, Sredni B: Induction of B subpopulation of suppressor cells by a single blood transfusion. Kidney Int 41: 143, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vanholder R, Vanbiesen W, Ringoir S: Contributing factors to the inhibition of phagocytosis in hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int 44: 208, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mourad G, Cristol JP, Chong G et al.: Disappearance of anti-HLA antibodies in highly sensitized patierits treated with erythropoietin. Transplant P’roc 24: 2512, 1992Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jungers P, Delagneau JF, Prunet P, Crosnier J: Vaccination against hepatitis B in hemodialysis centers. Adv Nephrol 11:303, 1982Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Crosnier J, Jungers P, Couroucé AM et al.: Randomized placebo-controlled trial of hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine in French haemodialysis units: II Haefriodialysis patients. Lancet 1: 797, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mioli VA, LaGreca G: A special issue on virus hepatitis and the kidney. Nephron 61: 251, 1992Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benhamou E, Courouce AM, Jungers P et al.: Hepatitis B vaccine: randomized trial of immunojenicity in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 21: 143, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meuer SC, Dumann H, Meyer Zum Buscheflfelde KH, Kohler H: Low-dose interleukin-2 induces systemic immune responses against HBsAg in immunodeficient non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet 1: 15, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jungers P, Devillier P, Salomon H, Cerisier JE, Courouce AM: Randomised placebo-controlled trial of recombinant interleukin-2 in chronic uraemic patients who are nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet 344: 856, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jadoul M, Cornu C, van Ypersele de Strihou C, the UCL collaborative group: Incidence of risk factors for hepatitis C seroconversion in hemodialysis: a prospective study. Kidney Int A4: 1322, 1993Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knudsen F, Wantzin P, Rasmussen K et al.: Hepatitis C in dialysis patients: relationships to blood transfusions, dialysis and liver disease. Kidney Int 43: 1353, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chauveau P, Courroucé AM, Lemarec N et al.: Anti-bodies to hepatitis C virus by second generation test in hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 149S, 1993Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vitale C, Tricerri A, Marangella M et al.: Epidemiology of hepatitis-C virus infection in dialysis units — 1st-versus 2nd-generation assays. Nephron 64: 315, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pol S, Dubois F, Mattlinger et al.: Absence of hepatitis Delta virus infection in chronic hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients in France. Transplantation 54: 1096, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glassock RJ, Cohen AH, Danovitch G, Parsa KP: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the kidney. Ann Intern Med 112: 35, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marcus R, Favero MS, Banerjee S et al.: Prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The Cooperative Dialysis Study Group. Am J Med 90: 614, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tebben JA, Rigsby MO, Selwyn PA, Brennan N, Kliger A, Finkelstein FO: Outcome of HIV infected patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 44: 191, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Breyer JA, Harbison MA: Isolation of human immuno-deficiency virus from peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 21: 23, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gejyo F, Yamada T, Odani S et al.: A new form of amyloid protein associated with chronic hemodialysis was identified as /32 microglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 129:701, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gorevic PD, Munoz PC, Casey TT et al.: Polymerisation of intact /32 microglobulin in tissues causes amyloidosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 83: 7908, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van Ypersele C, Jadoul M, Malghem J, Maldague B, Jamart J: Effect of dialysis membrane and patient’s age on signs of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int 39: 1012, 1991Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zingraff J, Beyne P, Urena P et al.: Influence of haemodialysis membranes on β2-microglobulin kinetics: in vivo and in vitro studies. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3: 284, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chanard J, Vincent C, Caudwell V et al.: β2-microglobulin metabolism in uremic patients who are undergoing dialysis. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 83S, 1993Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zingraff J, Noël LH, Bardin T, Atienza C, Zins B, Drüeke T, Kuntz D: Beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis in chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med 11: 323, 1990Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zaoui PM, Stone WJ, Hakim RM: Effects of dialysis membranes on β2-microglobulin production and cellular expression. Kidney Int 38: 962, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Linke RP, Keerling A, Rail A: Hemodialysis: demonstration of truncated β2-microglobulin in AB amyloid in situ. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 100S, 1993Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Capeillere-Blandin C, Delaveau T, Descamps-Latscha B: Structural modifications of human β2-microglobulin treated with oxygen-derived radicals. Biochem J 277: 175, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nakashima Y, Akizawa T, Nagai T, Koshikawa S: Role of uremic and endothelial factors in the development of β2-microglobulin amyloidosis. Kidney Int 41(Suppl): 88S, 1993Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bach JF (ed): Traité d’Immunologie, Paris, Médecine Sciences Flammarion, 1993, 1205 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sigal LH, Ron Y (eds): Immunology and Inflammation. Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences, New York, McGraw-Hill Inc, 1993, 805 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raska K JR, Raskova J, Shea SM et al.: T cell subsets and cellular immunity in end-stage renal disease. Am J Med 75: 734, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chatenoud L, Dugas B, Beaurain G et al.: Presence of preactivated T cells in hemodialyzed patients: their possible role in altered immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 7457, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kurz P, Kohler H, Meuer S, Hutteroth T, Meyer Zum Buschenfelde KH: Impaired cellular immune responses in chronic renal failure: evidence for a T cell defect. Kidney Int 29: 1209, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Beaurain G, Naret C, Marcon L et al.: In vivo T cell activation in chronic uremic hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int 36: 636, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Newberry WM, Sanford JP: Defective cellular immunity in renal failure: depression of reactivity of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin by renal failure serum. J Clin Invest 50: 1262, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kamata K, Okubo M, Sada M: Immunosuppressive factors in uraemic sera are composed of both dialysable and non-dialysable components. Clin Exp Immunol 54: 277, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barsotti G, Bevilacqua G, Morelli E et al.: Toxicity arising from guanidine compounds: role of methyl guanidine as uremic toxin. Kidney Int 7: S299, 1975Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hörl WH, Haag-Weber M, Georgopoulos A Block LH: Physicochemical charcterization of a polypeptide present in uremic serum that inhibits the biological activity of polymorphoniclear cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 6353, 1990Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Revillard JP: Immunologic alterations in chronic renal insufficiency. Adv Nephrol 8: 365, 1979Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nelson DS, Penrose JM: Effect of hemodialysis and transplantation on inhibition of lymphocyte transformation by sera from uremic patients. Clin Immunol Immunopath 4: 143, 1975Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chouaib S, Fradelizi D: The mechanism of inhibition of human IL-2 production. J Immunol 129: 2463, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chouaib S, Bertoglio JH: Prostaglandin E as modulators of the immune response. Lymphokine Res 7: 237, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sunder-Plassmann G, Heinz G, Wagner L, Prychzy B, Derfler K: T-cell selection and T-cell receptor variable beta-chain usage in chronic hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 37: 252, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stachowski J, Pollok M, Burrichter H, Spithaler C, Baldamus CA: Does uremic environment down-regulate T cell activation via TCR/CD3 antigen receptor complex? J Clin Lab Immunol 36: 15, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meuer SC, Hauer M, Kurz P, Meyer Zum Buschenfelde KH, Kohler H: Selective blockade of the antigenreceptor-mediated pathway of T cell activation in patients with impaired primary immune responses. J Clin Invest 80: 743, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stachowski J, Pollok M, Burrichter H, Baldamus CA: Immunodeficiency in ESRD-patients is linked to altered IL-2 receptor density on T cell subsets. J Clin Lab Immunol 34: 171, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gerez L, Madar L, Shkolnik T et al.: Regulation of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma gene expression in renal failure. Kidney Int 40: 266, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Keown P, Descamps-Latscha B: In vitro suppression of cell-mediated immunity by ferroproteins and ferric salts. Cell Immunol 80: 257, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Smith MD, Hardy G, Williams JD, Coles GA: Suppressor cell numbers and activity in non-transfused renal dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 20: 130, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bender BS, Curtis JL, Nagel JE et al.: Analysis of immune status of hemodialyzed adults: association with prior transfusions. Kidney Int 26: 436, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    De Sousa M: Immune functions in iron overload. Clin Exp Immunol 75: 1, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pfaffl W, Gross HJ, Neumeier D, Samtleben W, Gurland HJ: Lymphocyte subsets and delayed cutaneious hypersensitivity in hemodialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 66: 195, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Collart FE, Dratwa M, Wittek M, Wens R: Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on T lymphocyte subsets in hemodialysis patients. ASAIO Trans 36: M219, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Grimm PC, Sinai-Trieman L, Sekiya NM et al.: Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on HLA sensitization and cell mediated immunity. Kidney Int 38: 12, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Walz G, Kunzendorf U, Josimovic-Alasevic O et al.: Soluble interleukin 2 receptor and tissue polypeptide antigen serum concentrations in end-stage renal failure. Nephron 56: 157, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zaoui P, Green W, Hakim RM: Hemodialysis with cuprophane membrane modulates interleukin-2 receptor expression. Kidney Int 39: 1020, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Descamps-Latscha B: The immune system in end stage renal disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypert 2: 883, 1993Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Paczek L, Schaefer RM, Heidland A: Improved function of B lymphocytes in dialysis patients treated by recombinant human erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 87: 36, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sennesael JJ, Van Der Niepen P, Verbeelen DL: Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin increases antibody titers after hepatitis B vaccination in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 40: 121, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nolph KD, Husted FC, Sharp GC, Siemsen AW: Antibodies to nuclear antigens in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Am J Med 60: 673, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gagnon RF, Shuster J, Kaye M: Auto-immunity in patients with end-stage renal disease maintained on hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Lab Immunol 11: 155, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rumpf KW, Seubert S, Seubert A et al.: Association of ethylene-oxide-induced IgE antibodies with symptoms in dialysis patients. Lancet 2: 1385, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Herbelin A, Nguyen AT et al.: Soluble CD23 as an effector of immune dysregulation in chronic uremia and dialysis. Kidney Int 43: 878, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mossalayi MD, Lecron JC, Dalloul AH et al.: Soluble CD23 (Fc∈RII) and interleukin-1 synergistically induce early human thymocyte maturation. J Exp Med 171: 959, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wilson WEC, Kirkpatrick CHH, Talmadge DW: Suppression of immunologic responsiveness in uremia. Ann Intern Med 62: 1, 1965Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boulton-Jones JM, Vick R, Cameron Js et al.: Immune responses in uremia. Clin Nephrol 1: 351, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Byron PR, Mallick NP, Taylor G: Immune potential in human uraemia. 1. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate to depression of immune potential. J Clin Pathol 29: 765, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kleinknecht C, Margolis A, Bonnissol C, Gaiffe M, Sahyoun S, Broyer M: Serum antibodies before and after immunisation in haemodialysed children. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Ass 14:209, 1977Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Beaman M, Michael J, MacLennan IC, Adu D: T cell independent and T cell dependent antibody response in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4: 216, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Guérin A, Buisson Y, Nutini MT, Saliou P, London G, Marchais S: Response to vaccination against tetanus in chronic haemodialyzed patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 323, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stoloff IL, Stout R, Myerson RM, Havens WP: Production of antibody in patients with uremia. N Engl J Med 259: 320, 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Borradori L, Bom B, Descoeudres C, Skvaril F, Morell A: Serum immunoglobulin levels and natural antibodies to haemophilus influenzae in hemodialysis patients: evidence for IgG subclass imbalances. Nephron 56: 35, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rytel MW, Dailey MP, Schiffman G, Hoffmann RG, Piering WF: Pneumococcal vaccine immunization of patients with renal impairment. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 182: 468, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hibberd PL, Rubin RH: Approach to immunization in the immunosuppressed host. Infect Dis Clin North Am 4: 123, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Abdulmassih Z, Duverlie G, Moriniere P et al.: Response to influenza vaccine in uremic patients: relation to erythrocyte magnesium and the value of a second injection. Nephrologie 8: 23, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rautenberg P, Teifke I, Schlegelberger T, Ullmann U: Influenza subtype-specific IgA, IgM and IgG responses in patients on hemodialysis after influenza vaccination. Infection 16: 323, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stevens CE, Alter HJ, Taylor PE, Zang EA, Harley EJ, Szuness W: Hepatitis B vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 311: 496, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kohler H, Arnold W, Renschin G, Dormeyer HH, Meyer Zum Buschenfelde KH: Active hepatitis B vaccination of dialysis patients and medical staff. Kidney Int 25: 124, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Benhamou E, Courouce AM, Laplanche A, Jungers P, Tron JF, Crosnier J: Long-term results of hepatitis B vaccination in patients on dialysis. N Engl J Med 314: 1710, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Weissman JY, Tsuchiyose MM, Tong MJ, Co R, Chin K, Ettenger RB: Lack of response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in non responders to the plasma vaccine. JAMA 260: 1734, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Varla-Leftherioti M, Papanicolaou M, Spyropoulou M et al.: HLA-associated non-responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine. Tissue Antigens 35: 60, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pol S, Legendre C, Mattlinger B, Berthelot P, Kreis H: Genetic basis of non-response to hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialyzed patients. J Hepatol 11: 385, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Alper CA, Kruskall MS, Marcus-Bagley D et al.: Genetic pediction of nonresponse to hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med 321: 708, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Caillat-Zucman S, Giminez JJ, Albouze G et al.: HLA genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis B vaccine response in hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 157S, 1993Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stachowski J, Pollock M, Burrichter H et al.: Relationships between TCR/CD3 receptor density on CD4 T cels and the anti-HBs antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination in ESRD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 678, 1992Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stachowski J, Pollock M, Barth C, Maciejewski, Baldamus CA: Non-responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination in haemodialysis patients: association with impaired TCR/CD3 antigen receptor expression regulating costimulatory processes in antigen presentation and recognition. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 144, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Quiroga JA, Castillo I, Porres JC et al.: Recombinant gamma-interferon as adjuvant to hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Hepatology 12: 661, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dumann H, Meuer SC, Renschin G, Kohler H: Influence of thymopentin on antibody reponse, and monocyte and T cell function in hemodialysis patients who fail to respond to hepatitis B vaccination. Nephron 55: 136, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fauve RM: Inflammation and natural immunity, in Progress in Immunology, edited by Fougereau M, Dausset J, London, Academic Press, 1980, p 737Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Deppish R, Ritz E, Hansch GM, Schols M, Rauterberg EW: Biocompatibility. Perspectives in 1993. Kidney Int 45(Suppl): 77S, 1994Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tielemans CH, Madhoun P, Lenaers M, Schandene L, Goldman M, Vanherweghein JL: Anaphylactoid reactions on AN69 membranes in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Kidney Int 38: 982, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bommer J, Ritz E: Ethylene oxide (ETO) as a major cause of anaphylactoid reactions in dialysis: a review. Artif Organs 11: 111, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hakim RM, Breillatt J, Lazarus JM, Port FK: Complement activation and hypersensitivity reactions to dialysis membranes. N Engl J Med 311: 878, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Oppermann M, Kurts C, Zierz R, Quentin E, Weber Mh, Gotze O: Elevated plasma levels of the immunosuppressive complement fragment Ba in renal failure. Kidney Int 40: 939, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Craddock PR, Fehr J, Dalmasso AP, Brighan KL, Jacob HS: Hemodialysis leukopenia. Pulmonary vascular leukostasis resulting from complement activation by dialyzer cellophane membranes. J Clin Invest 59: 879, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chenoveth DE, Cheung AK, Henderson LW: Anaphylatoxin formation during hemodialysis: effects of different dialyzer membranes. Kidney Int 24: 764, 1983Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kazatchkine MD, Carreno MP: Activation of the complement system at the interface between blood and artificial surfaces. Biomaterials 9: 30, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cheung AK, Parker CJ, Wilcox L, Janatova J: Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by cellulosic hemodialysis membranes. Kidney Int 36: 257, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cheung AK, Parker CJ, Wilcox LA, Janatova J: Activation of complement by hemodialysis mebranes: polyacrilonitrile binds more C3a than cuprophan. Kidney Int 37: 1055, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Goldfarb B, Nguyen AT et al.: Establishing the relationship between complement activation and stimulation of phagocyte oxidative metabolism in hemodialyzed patients: a randomized prospective study. Nephron 59: 279, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schindler R, Lonnemann G, Shaldon S, Koch KM, Dinarello CA: Transcription, not synthesis, of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by complement. Kidney Int 37: 85, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Carreno MP, Labarre D, Maillet F, Josefowicz M, Kazatchkine MD: Regulation of the human alternative complement pathway: formation of a tertiary complex between factor H, surface bound C3b and chemical groups on non-activating surfaces. Eur J Immunol 19: 2145, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lesavre PH, Muller-Eberhard HJ: Mechanism of action of factor D of the alternative complement pathway. J Exp Med 148: 1498, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Volanakis JE, Barnum SR, Giddens M, Galla JH: Renal filtration and catabolism of complement protein D. N Engl J Med 312: 395, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pascual M, Schifferli JA: Adsorption of complement factor D by polyacrilonitrile dialysis membranes. Kidney Int 43: 903, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Witko-Sarsat V, Descamps-Latscha B: Neutrophilderived oxidants and proteinases as immunomodulatory mediators in inflammation. Mediat Inflamm 3: 257, 1994Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Horl WH, Riegel W, Steinhauer HB et al.: Granulocyte activation during hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 26(Suppl 1): 30, 1986Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ritchey EE, Wallin JD, Shah SV: Chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production by leukocytes from chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 19: 349, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nguyen AT, Lethias C, Zingraff J, Herbelin A, Naret C, Descamps-Latscha B: Hemodialysis membrane-induced activation of phagocyte oxidative metabolism detected in vivo and in vitro within microamounts of whole blood. Kidney Int 28: 158, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Herbelin A, Nguyen AT, Urena P: Respective influence of uremia and hemodialysis on whole blood phagocyte oxidative metabolism, and circulating interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Adv Exp Med Biol 297: 183, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Richard MJ, Arnaud J, Jurkowitz C, Hachache T, Mefrahi H, Lapone F, Foret M, Favier A, Cordonnier D: Trace elements and lipid peroxidation abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 57: 10, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Giardini O, Taccone-Gallucci M, Lubrano R et al.: Evidence of red blood cell membrane lipid peroxidation in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 36: 235, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kikuchi Y, Koyama T, Koyama Y et al.: Red blood cell deformability in renal failure. Nephron 30: 8, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Remuzzi G, Benigni A, Dodesini P et al.: Reduced platelet thromboxane formation in uremia: evidence for a cyclo-oxygenase defect. J Clin Invest 71: 762, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Halliwell B: Oxidants and human disease: some new concepts. FASEB J 1: 358, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Petrone WF, English DK, Wong K, McCord JM: Free radicals and inflammation: superoxide-dependent activation of a neutrophil chemotactic factor in plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 1159, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Carp H, Janoff A: In vitro suppression of serum elastase-inhibitory capacity by reactive oxygen species generated by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Clin Invest 63: 793, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Weiss SJ, Peppin G, Ortiz X, Ragsdale C, Test ST: Oxidative autoactivation of latent collagenase by human neutrophils. Science 227: 747, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Del Maestro RF: An approach to free radicals in medic ine and biology. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 492: 153, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Memmos DE, Eastwood JB, Harris E, de Wardener HE: The’ shrinking man’ syndrome. Nephron 30: 106, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Himmerfarb J, Zaoui P, Hakim R: Modulation of granulocyte LAM-1 and MAC-1 during dialysis. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Kidney Int 41: 388, 1992Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Thylen P, Lundahl J, Fernvik E, Hed J, Svenson SB, Jacobson SH: Mobilization of an intracellular glycoprotein (Mac-1) on monocytes and granulocytes during hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol 12: 393, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tielemans CL, Delville JP, Husson CP et al.: Adhesion molecules and leukocyte common antigen on monocytes and granulocytes during hemodiaiysis. Clin Nephrol 39: 158, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vanholder R, Ringoir S, Dhondt A, Hakim R: Phagocytosis in uremic and hemodialysis: a prospective and cross sectional study. Kidney Int 39: 320, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lewis SL, Van Epps DE, Chenoweth DE: C5a receptor modulation on neutrophils and monocytes from chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 26: 37, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Paczek L, Czarkowska B, Schaefer L, Schaefer RM, Heidland A: Effect of beta 2-microglobulin on immunoglobulin production. Immunol Lett 33: 87, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Vanholder R, De Smet R, Hsu C, Vogeleere P, Ringoir S: Uremic toxicity. The middle molecule hypothesis revisited. Seminars in Nephrol 14: 205, 1994Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Osaki K, Otsuka H, Uomizu K, Harada R, Otsuji Y, Hashimoto S: Monocyte-mediated suppression of mitogen responses of lymphocytes in uremic patients. Nephron 34: 87, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ruddy MC, Rubin AL, Novogrodsky A, Stenzel KH. Decreased macrophage-mediated suppression of lymphocyte activation in chronic renal failure. Am J Med 75: 571, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ruiz P, Gomez F, Schreiber AD: Impaired function of macrophage Fc receptors in end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 322: 717, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Henderson LW, Koch KM, Dinarello CA, Shaldon S: Hemodialysis hypotension: the interleukin hypothesis. Blood Purif 1:3, 1983Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dinarello CA: Cytokines: agents provocateurs in hemodialysis? Kidney Int 41: 683, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lonnemann G, Van Der Meer JW, Cannon JG et al.: Induction of tumor necrosis factor during extracorporeal blood purification letter. N Engl J Med 317: 963, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Herbelin A, Nguyen AT, Zingraff J, Urena P, Descamps-Latscha B: Influence of uremia and hemodialysis on circulating interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Kidney Int 37: 116, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Herbelin A, Urena P, Nguyen AT, Zingraff J, Descamps-Latscha B: Elevated circulating levels of interleukin-6 in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 39: 954, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cavaillon JM, Poignet JL, Fitting C, Delons S: Serum interleukin-6 in long-term hemodialyzed patients. Nephron 60: 307, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Powell AC, Bland LE, Oettinger CW et al.: Lack of plasma interleukin-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha elevation during unfavorable hemodialysis conditions. J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1007, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Haran N, Bar-Khayim Y, Frensdorff A, Barnard G: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) binding protein: interference in immunoassays of TNF alpha. Kidney Int 40: 1166, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Cavaillon JM, Ciancioni C, Bacle F, Delons S, Kazatchkine MD: In vivo induction of interleukin-1 during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 35: 1212, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Herbelin A, Urena P, Nguyen AT, Zingraff J, Descamps-Latscha B: Influence of first and long-term dialysis on uraemia-associated increased basal production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha by circulating monocytes. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 349, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Schindler R, Linnenweber S, Schulze M et al.: Gene expression of interleukin-1 beta during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 43: 712, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Roccatello D, D’Alfonso S, Peruccio D et al.: Induction of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha in hemodialysis. Kidney Int 39(Suppl): 144S, 1993Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pertosa G, Gesualdo L, Tarantino EA, Ranieri E, Bottalico D, Schena FP: Influence of hemodialysis on interleukin-6 production and gene expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Kidney Int 39(Suppl): 149S, 1993Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dinarello CA: Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and their naturally occurring antagonists during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 38(Suppl): 68S, 1992Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Brockhaus M, Bar-Khayim Y, Gurwicz S, Frehsdorff A, Haran N: Plasma tumor necrosis factor soluble) receptors in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 42: 663, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pereira BJG, Shapiro L, King AJ, Falagas ME, Strom JA, Dinarello CA. Plasma levels of IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and their specific inhibitors in undialyzed chronic renal failure, CAPD and hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 45: 890, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Descamps-Latscha B, Herbelin A, Nguyen AT et al.: Balance between IL-1β, TNFα, and their specific inhibitors in chronic renal failure and maintenance dialysis. J Immunol 154: 882, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sunder-Plassmann G, Sedlacek PL, Sunder-Plassmann R et al.: Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 40: 787, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lonnemann G, Behme TC, Lenzner B et al.: Permeability of dialyzer membranes to TNF alpha-inducing: substances derived from water bacteria. Kidney Int 42: 61, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Jahns G, Poignet JL, Kazatchkine MD: Induction of interleukin-1 during hemodialysis. Kidney Int 39(Suppl): 139S, 1993Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kumano K, Yokota S, Nanbu M, Sakai T: Do cytokine-inducing substances penetrate through dialysis membranes and stimulate monocytes. Kidney Int 43(Suppl): 205S, 1993Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Urena P, Herbelin A, Zingraff J et al.: Permeability of cellulosic and non-cellulosic membranes to endotoxin subunits and cytokine production during in-vitro haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 16, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mege JL, Olmer M, Purgus R et al.: Haemodialysis membranes modulate chronically the production of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 868, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Cala S, Maozuran R, Kordic D: Negative effect of uraemia and cuprophane haemodialysis on natural killer cells. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5: 437, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Zaoui P, Hakim R: Natural killer cell function in hemodialysis patients: effect of the dialysis membrane. Kidney Int 43: 1298, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Béatrice Descamps-Latscha
    • 1
  • Paul Jungers
    • 2
  1. 1.INSERM U.25 GH Necker-Enfants MaladesParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyGH Necker-Enfants MaladesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations