Advertisement

Continuous Peritoneal Dialysis

  • Charles M. Mion

Abstract

In 1976, the concept of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was introduced by Popovich et al.. It was defined as a novel portable/wearable equilibrium peritoneal dialysis technique (1). Ironically, this new concept went unnoticed by a majority of clinicians in spite of its ingenious simplicity. The early clinical results reported two years later (2) attracted the interest of the nephrology community. These results validated the theoretical assumptions behind the principle of CAPD. Then, for the first time since the beginning of maintenance dialysis, a real practical method for a continuous dialytic therapy became available. As initially proposed, however, the technique had two major drawbacks: 1 ) the technical burden associated with the use of the dialysis fluid in two liter glass bottles which made this technique difficult to use; and 2) the high peritoneal infection rate due to the frequent openings of the dialysate delivery circuit

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Nephrol Dial Transplant Residual Renal Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Decherd JB, Bomar JB, Pyle WF: The definition of a novel portable/wearable equilibrium peritoneal dialysis technique. (Abstract) Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 5: 64, 1976Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Nolph KD, Ghods AJ, Twardowski ZJ, Pyle WK: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Int Med 88: 449, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oreopoulos DG, Robson M, Izatt S, Clayton S, de Veber GA: A simple and safe technique for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 24: 484, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buoncristiani U: The Y set with disinfectant is here to stay. Perit Dial Int 9: 149, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cantaluppi A, Scalamogna A, Castelnuovo C, Graziani G: Long term efficacy of a Y connector and disinfectant to prevent peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 2: 182, 1986Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canadian CAPD clinical trials group: Peritonitis in continuous peritoneal dialysis: a multi-centre randomized clinical trial comparing the Y connector disinfectant system to standard systems. Perit Dial Int 9: 159, 1989Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trevino-Becerra A: The place of CAPD in the treatment of end stage renal disease in Mexico. Perit Dial Bull 1: 58, 1988Google Scholar
  8. 8. Anonymous: CAPD — The white Knight? Lancet 2: 1127, 1987Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geerlings W, Tufveson G, Ehrich JHH, Jones EHP, Landais P, Loirat C, Mallick NP, Margreiter R, Raine AEG, Salmela K, Selwood NH, Valderrabano F: Report on management of renal failure in Europe, XXIII. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9(Suppl 1): 7, 1994Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    US Renal Data System, USRDS 1993: IV Methods of ESRD treatment. Am J Kidney Dis 22(Suppl 2): 41, 1993Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gokal R, Baillod R, Bogle S, Hunt L, Jakubowski C, Marsh F, Ogg C, Oliver D, Ward M, Wilkinson R: Multi-centre study on outcome of treatment in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2: 172, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burton PR, Walls J: Selection-adjusted comparison of life-expectancy of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, and renal transplantation. Lancet 1: 1115, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Serkes K2D, Blagg CR, Nolph KD, Vonesh EF, Shapiro F: Comparison of patient and technique survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis: a multicenter study. Perit Dial Int 10: 15, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maiorca R, Vonesh EF, Cavalli P, De Vecchi A, Giangrande A, La Greca G, Scarpioni LL, Bragantini L, Cancarini GC, Cantaluppi A et al.: A multicenter, selection-adjusted comparison of patient and technique survivals on CAPD and hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 11: 118, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nelson CB, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Guire KE: Comparison of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patient survival with evaluation of trends during the 1980s. Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1147, 1992Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friedman EA: Critical appraisal of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Rev Med 35: 233, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coles G A: Is peritoneal dialysis a good long term treatment? Br Med J 290: 1164, 1985Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mion C, Slingeneyer A, Canaud B, Mourad G, Chong G, Béraud JJ: The benefits and proper role of CAPD. Contrib Nephrol 44: 148, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis: pride and prejudice. Perit Dial Int 10: 5, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diaz-Buxo JA, Farmer CD, Walker PJ, Chandler JT, Holt KL: Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. Artif Organs 5: 157, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Verger C, Larpent L, Dumontet M: Prognostic value of peritoneal equilibration curves in CAPD patients. in Frontiers in Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Maher JF, Winchester JF, New York, Rich & Associates, 1986, p 88Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Prowant BF, Ryan LP, Moore HL, Nielsen MP: Peritoneal equilibration tests. Perit Dial Int 7: 138, 1987Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD: Peritoneal dialysis: how much is enough? Semin Dial 1: 75, 1988Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Sigler MH, Gilgore GS: A quantitative approach to CAPD prescription. Perit Dial Bull 5: 152, 1985Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fenton SSA, Johnston N, Delmore T: Nutritional assessment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 33: 650, 1987Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Young GA, Kopple JD, Lindholm B et al.: Nutritional assessment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. An international study. Am J Kidney Dis 17: 462, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Churchill DN: Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis and other outcome-related risk factors: a critical appraisal. Semin Dial 5: 142, 1992Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bargman JM: Peritoneal dialysis connection devices: what have we learned? Perit Dial Int 12: 9, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stegmayr BG, Granbom L, Tranaeus A, Wikdahl AM: Reduced risk of peritonitis in CAPD by the use of an UV-connector box. Perit Dial Bull 11: 128, 1991Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buoncristiani U, Quintiliani G, Cozzari M, Carobi C: Current status of the Y-set. Adv Perit Dial 2: 165, 1986Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Viglino G, Colombo A, Scalamogna A, Cavalli PL, Guerra L, Renzetti G, Gandolfo C, De Vecchi A, Barzaghi V, Baltean P, Peluso F, Cantaluppi A: Prospective randomized study of two Y devices in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 165, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luzar MA, Slingeneyer A, Cantaluppi A, Peluso FP: In vitro study of the flush effect in two reusable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD disconnect systems. Perit Dial Int 9: 169, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    De Vecchi A, Scalamogna A, Castlenovo C, Artuso K, Brancadoro A: Incidence, possible causes and social aspects of the symptomatic introduction of disinfectant into the peritoneal cavity in CAPD. Int J Artif Organs 17: 265, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Werner HP: Disinfectants in dialysis: dangers, drawbacks and disinformation. Nephron 49: 1, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Current status of continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 9, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Popovich RP, Pyle WK, Moncrief JW: Kinetics of peritoneal transport, in Peritoneal Dialysis, 1st Ed, edited by Nolph KD, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1981, p 100Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Henao JE, Mejia G, Arbelaez M, Arango JL, Garcia A, Sanchez J, Gil NE, Aramburo O: Six-and-a-half years of experience with three two-liter daily exchanges in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 8: 207, 1988Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moncrief JW, Popovich RP: A comparison of four vs three exchanges per day with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. in Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Gahl GM, Kessel M, Nolph KD, Amsterdam, Excerpta medica, 1981, p 116Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Twardowski Z, Janicka L: Three exchanges with a 2.5-liter volume for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 20: 281, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Twardowski ZJ, Prowant BF, Nolph KD, Martinez AJ, Lampton LM: High volume, low frequency continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 23: 64, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Krediet RT, Boeschoten EW, Struijk DG, Arisz L: Differences in the peritoneal transport of water, solutes and proteins between dialysis in two-and with three-litre exchanges. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2: 198, 1988Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Keshaviah P, Emerson PF, Vonesh EF, Brandes JC: Relationship between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient in peritoneal dialysis. Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1820, 1994Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim D, Khanna R, Wu G, Clayton S, Oreopoulos DG: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with three-liter exchanges: a prospective study. Perit Dial Bull 4: 82, 1984Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Twardowski ZJ, Burrows LM, Prowant BF: Individualization of exchange volume. Perit Dial Bull, 4(Suppl 3): S134, 1984Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nolph KD: Quantitating peritoneal dialysis delivery: a required standard of care. Semin Dial 4: 139, 1991Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, Meyer M, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Ponferrada L, Keshaviah P: Cross sectional assessment of weekly urea and creatinine clearances and indices of nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13: 178, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blake PG, Balaskas EV, Izatt S, Oreopoulos DG: Is total creatinine clearance a good predictor of clinical outcomes in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis? Perit Dial Int 12: 353, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rottembourg J: Residual function and recovery of renal function in patients treated by CAPD. Kidney Int 43(Suppl 40): S106, 1993Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rottembourg J, Issad B, Callego JL, Degoulet P, Aime F, Gueffaf B, Legrain M: Evolution of residual renal function in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 19: 397, 1982Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cancarini GC, Brunori G, Camerini C, Brasa S, Manili L, Maiorca R: Renal function recovery and maintenance of residual diuresis in CAPD and hemodialysis. Perit Dial Bull 6: 77, 1986Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lysaght MJ, Vonesh EF, Gotch F, Ibels L, Keen M, Lindholm B, Nolph KD, Pollock CA, Prowant B, Farrell PC: The influence of dialysis treatment modality on the decline of remaining renal function. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 37: 598, 1991Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Randerson DH, Farrell PC: Mass transfer properties of the human peritoneum. ASAIO J 3: 140, 1980Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smeby LC, Wideroe T, Jorstad S: Individual differences in water transport during continuous peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 4: 17, 1981Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Waniewski J, Werynski A, Heimburger O, Lindholm B: A comparative analysis of mass transport models in peritoneal dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 37: 65, 1991Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Twardowski ZJ: Clinical value of standardized equilibration tests in CAPD patients. Blood Purif 7: 95, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davies SJ, Brown B, Bryan J, Russell GI: Clinical evaluation of the peritoneal equilibration test: a population-based study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 64, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Twardowski ZJ: The fast peritoneal equilibration test. Semin Dial 3 141, 1990Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Twardowski ZJ: PET — a simpler approach for determining prescriptions for adequate dialysis therapy. Adv Perit Dial 6: 186, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis. in Textbook of Nephrology, 3rd Ed, edited by Massry SG, Glassock RJ, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkim, 1994, p 1584Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jensen RA, Nolph KD, Moore HL, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ: Weight limitations for adequate therapy using commonly performed CAPD and NIPD regimens. Semin Dial 7: 61, 1994Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lo WK, Brendolan A, Prowant BF, Moore HL, Khanna R, Twardowski Z, Nolph KD: Changes in the peritoneal equilibration test in selected chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1466, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Watson PE, Watson ID, Batt RD: Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 27, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Coburn JW: Metabolic balance studies and dietary protein requirements in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 21: 849, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bergström J, Fürst P, Alvestrand A, Lindholm B: Protein and energy intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen losses in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 44: 1048, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lindsay RM, Spanner E: The protein catabolic rate is dependent upon the type and amount of treatment in dialyzed uremics. Am J Kidney Dis 5: 382, 1989Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lysaght MJ, Pollock CA, Hallet MD, Ibels LS. Farrell PC: The relevance of urea kinetic modeling to CAPD. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 35: 784, 1989Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Keshaviah P: Adequacy of CAPD: a quantitative approach. Kidney Int 42(Suppl 38): S160, 1992Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bergstrom J, Lindholm B: Nutrition and adequacy of dialysis. How do hemodialysis and CAPD compare? Kidney Int 43(Suppl 40): S39, 1993Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Goodship THJ, Passlick-Deetjen J, Ward MK, Wilkinson R: Adequacy of dialysis and nutritional status in CAPD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 1366, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Barth RH: Dialysis by the numbers: the false promise of Kt/V. Semin Dial 2: 207, 1989Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Prowant B, Moore H, Ponferrada L, Van Stone J, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R: Defining adequacy of CAPD with urea kinetics. Adv Perit Dial 6: 173, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nolph KD: Small solute clearances and clinical outcomes in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 12: 343, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gotch FA, Sargent JA: A mechanistic analysis of the national cooperative dialysis study (NCDS), Kidney Int 28: 526, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gotch FA: The application of urea kinetic modeling to CAPD. in Peritoneal Dialysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Course on Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by La Greca G, Ronco C, Feriani M, Chiaramonte S, Conz P, Milan, Wichtig Editore, 1991, p 47Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Keshaviah P: Urea kinetic and middle molecule approaches to assessing the adequacy of hemodialysis and CAPD. Kidney Int 40: S28, 1993Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Brown JM, Sigler et al.: Urea kinetic analysis and clinical outcome on CAPD: a five-year longitudinal study. Adv Perit Dial 6: 181, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Teehan BP, Schleifer CR, Brown J: Adequacy of CAPD. Morbidity and mortality in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 24: 990, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77a.
    Ahmad S, Gallagher N, Shen F: Intermittent peritoneal dialysis: status reassessed. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 25: 86, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Milutinovic J, Cutler RE, Hoover P, Heissen B, Scribner BH: Measurement of residual glomerular filtration rate in the patients receiving repetitive hemodialysis. Kidney Int 8: 185, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Brandes JC, Piering WF, Beres JA: A method to assess efficacy of CAPD: preliminary results. Adv Perit Dial 6: 192, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Burkart JM, Jordan JR, Rocco MV: Assessment of dialysis dose by measured clearance versus extrapolated data. Perit Dial Int 13: 184, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Hutchinson AJ, Gokal R: Towards tailored dialysis fluids in CAPD. The role of reduced calcium and magnesium in dialysis fluids. Perit Dial Int 12: 199, 1992Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Dobbie JW: Pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosing syndromes (sclerosing peritonitis) in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 12: 14, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Dobbie JW: Serositis: comparative analysis of histological findings and pathogenetic mechanisms in nonbacterial serosal inflammation. Perit Dial Int 13: 256, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Hutchison AJ, Freemont AJ, Boulton HF, Gokal R: Low-calcium dialysis fluid and oral calcium carbonate in CAPD. A method of controlling hyperphosphataemia whilst minimizing aluminium exposure and hypercalcaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 1219, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Cunningham J, Beer J, Coldwell RD, Noonan K, Sawyer N, Makin HLJ: Dialysate calcium reduction in CAPD patients treated with calcium carbonate and alfacalcidol. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 63, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Nolph KD, Prowant B, Serkes KD, Morgan L, Baker B, Charytan C, Gham K, Hamburger R, Husserl F, Kleit S, McGuinness J, Moore H, Warren T: Multicenter evaluation of a new peritoneal dialysis solution with a high lactate and low magnesium concentration. Perit Dial Bull 3: 63, 1983Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Bruno M, Bagnis C, Maragella M et al.: CAPD with an amino acid dialysis solution: a long-term cross-over study. Kidney Int 35: 1189, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD: Osmotic agents and ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 42: 93, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Mistry CD, Mallick NP, Gokal R: Ultrafiltration with an isosmotic solution during long peritoneal dialysis exchanges. Lancet 330: 178, 1987Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Mistry CD, Gokal R, Peers E, the MIDAS study group: A randomized multicenter clinical trial comparing isosmolar icodextrin with hyperosmolar glucose solutions in CAPD. Kidney Int 46: 496, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Feriani M, Passlick-Deetjen J, Brown C, Buoncristiani U, Di Paolo N, Gahl G, Gotloib L, Hylander B, Lameire N, Montenegro J, Pedersen FB et al.: An open controlled randomized clinical trial with bicarbonate CAPD solutions: interim results. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 414, 1994Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Yatzidis H: A new stable bicarbonate dialysis solution for peritoneal dialysis: preliminary report. Perit Dial lnt 11: 224, 1991Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Holmes CJ: Biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis solutions. Perit Dial Int 13: 88, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Henderson IS: Composition of peritoneal dialysis solutions: potential hazards. Blood Purif 7: 86, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Nilsson-Thorell CB, Huscalu N, Abdreb AHG, Kjell-strand PTT, Wieslander AP: Heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis solutions gives rise to aldehydes. Perit Dial Int 13: 208, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Henderson IS, Couper LA, Lumsden A: The effect of shelf-life of peritoneal dialysis fluid on ultrafiltration on CAPD. in Peritoneal Dialysis: Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by La Greca G, Chiaramonte S, Fabris A, Feriani M, Ronco C, Milan, Wichtig Editore, 1986, p 85Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Jörres A, Gahl GM, Frei U: Peritoneal dialysis fluid biocompatibility: does it really matter? Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S79, 1994Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Topley N, Alobaidi HM, Davies M, Coles GA, Williams JD, Lloyd D: The effect of dialysate on peritoneal phagocyte oxidative metabolism. Kidney Int 34: 404, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Jörres A, Jörres D, Topley N, Gahl GM, Mahiout A: Leukotriene release from peripheral and peritoneal leucocytes following exposure to peritoneal dialysis solutions. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 495, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Zhou XJ, Yu AW, Zhou FQ, Ryu J, Ing TS, Vaziri ND: Effects of an acidic, lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution and its euhydric, bicarbonate-based counterpart on neutrophilic intracellular pH. Int J Artif Organs 16: 816, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Ing TX, Yu AW, Podila PV, Zhou FQ, Kun EW, Strippoli P, Nawab ZM: Failure of neutrophils to recover their ability to produce superoxide after stunning by a conventional, acidic, lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution. Int J Artif Organs 17: 194, 1994Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    Jönes A, Topley N, Steenweg L, Müller C, Köttgen E, Gahl GM: Inhibition of cytokine synthesis by peritoneal dialysate persists throughout the CAPD cycle. Am J Nephrol 12: 80, 1992Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Dourlevani A, Rapoport J, Konforti A, Zlotnik M, Chaimovitz C: The effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid on the release of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha by monocytes/macrophages. Perit Dial Int 13: 112, 1993Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Liberek T, Topley N, Jörres A, Coles GA, Gahl GM, Williams JD: Peritoneal dialysis fluid inhibition of phagocyte function: effects of osmolality and glucose concentration. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1508, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Breborowicz A, Podela H, Oreopoulos DG: Toxicity of osmotic solutes on human mesothelial cell in vitro. Kidney Int 41: 1280, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Wieslander AP, Nordin MK, Hartinson E, Kjellstrand PTT, Boberg NC: Heat sterilized PD-fluids impair growth and inflammatory responses of cultured cell lines and human leucocytes. Clin Nephrol 39: 343, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Wieslander AP, Nordin MK, Kjellstrand PTT, Boberg UC: Toxicity of peritoneal dialysis fluids on cultured fibroblasts. Kidney Int 40: 77, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Topley N, Mack Enzie R, Jörres A, Coles GA, Williams JD: Cytokin networks in CAPD: interaction of resident cells during inflammation in the peritoneal cavity. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S282, 1993Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Topley N, Jörres A, Luttmann W, Petersen MM, Lang MJ, Thierauch KH, Müller C, Coles GA, Davies M, Williams JD: Human peritoneal mesothelial cells synthesize interleukin-6: induction by IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. Kidney Int 43: 226, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Betjes MGH, Tuk CW, Struijk DG, Krediet RT, Arisz L, Hart M, Beelen RH: Interleukin-8 production by human peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-l, and medium conditioned by macrophages cocultured with Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Infect Dis 168: 1202, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Topley N, Petersen MM, Mackenzie R, Neubauer A, Stylianou E, Kaever V, Davies M, Coles GA, Jörres A, Williams JD: Human peritoneal mesothelial cell prostaglandin synthesis: induction of cycloxygenase mRNA by peritoneal macrophages derived cytokines. Kidney Int 46: 900, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Witowski J, Topley N, Jörres A, Liberek T, Coles GA, Williams JD: Effect of lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on human peritoneal mesothelial cell interleukin-6 and prostaglandin synthesis. Kidney Int, 47: 282, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Vlassara H: Serum advanced glycosylation end products: a new class of uremic toxins? Blood Purif 12: 54, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Brownlee M, Cerami A, Vlassara H: Advanced glycosylation end products in tissue and the biochemical basis of diabetic complications. N Engl J Med 318: 1315, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Lamb E, Cattell WR, Dawnay A: Glycated albumin in serum and dialysate of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Sci Colch 84: 619, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Korbet SM, Makita Z, Firanek CA, Vlassara H: Advanced glycosylation end products in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 22: 588, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Makita Z, Bucala R, Rayfield EJ, Friedman EA, Kaufman AM, Korbet SM, Barth RH, Winston JA, Fuh H, Manogue KR, Cerami A, Vlassara H: Reactive glycosylation endproducts in diabetic uraemia and treatment of renal failure. Lancet 343: 1519, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Papanastasiou P, Grass L, Rodela H, Patrikarea A, Oreopoulos D, Diamandis EP: Immunological quantification of advanced glycosylation end-products in the serum of patients on hemodialysis or CAPD. Kidney Int 46: 216, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Fracasso A, Calo L, Landini S, Morachiello P, Righetto F, Scanferra F, Taffoletto P, Genchi R, Roncalli D, Cantaro S, De Silvestre G, Cavatton G et al.: Peritoneal sclerosis: role of plasticizers in stimulating interleukin-1 production. Perit Dial Im 13: S5I7, 1993Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Gotloib L, Mines M, Garmizo L, Varka I: Hemodynamic effects of increasing intraabdominal pressure in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1: 41, 1981Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R. Nolph KD, Scalamogna A, Metzler MH, Schneider TW, Prowant B, Ryan LP: Intraabdominal pressures during natural activities in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 44: 129, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Prefaut C, Monteil AL, Ramonatko M, Slingeneyer A, Chardon G, Mirouze J: Closing volume and pulmonary gas exchange during peritoneal dialysis. Bull Europ Physiopath Resp 14: 755, 1978Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Ahluwalia M, Ishjikawa S, Gellman M, Shah T. Sekar T, MacDonnell KF: Pulmonary functions during peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 18: 251, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Taveira da Silva AM, Davies WB, Winchester JF, Coleman DE, Weir CN: Peritonitis, dialysate infusion and lung function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 24: 79, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Berlyne GM, Lee HA, Ralston AJ. Woolcock JA: Pulmonary complications of peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 2: 75, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Goitloib L, Garmizo L, Varak I, Mines M: Reduction of vital capacity due to increased intra-abdominal pressure during peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1: 63, 1981Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    Epstein SN, Inouye T, Robson M, Oreopoulos DG: Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid on ventilatory function. Perit Dial Bull 2: 120, 1982Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    Schurig R, Gahl G, Schartl M, Becker H, Kessel M: Central and peripheral hemodynamics in long term peritoneal dialysis patients. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 16: 165, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Kong CH, Raval U, Thompson FD: Effect of 2 liters of intraperitoneal dialysate on the cardiovascular system. Clin Nephrol 26: 134, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Franklin JO, Alpert MA, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Nolph KD, Morgan RJ, Kelly DL: Effect of increasing intraabdominal pressure and volume on left ventricular function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 12: 291, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Huting J, Kramer W, Reitinger J, Kuhn K, Wizemann V, Schutterle G: Cardiac structure and function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: influence of blood purification and hypercirculation. Am Heart J 119: 334, 1990Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    Eisenberg M, Prichard S, Barre P, Patton R, Hutchinson T, Sniderman A: Left ventricular hypertrophy in end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis. Am J Cardiol 60: 418, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Hau T, Ahrenholz DH, Simmons RL: Secondary bacterial peritonitis: the biologic basis of treatment. Curr Prob Surg 16: 1, 1979Google Scholar
  135. 134.
    Haney AF, Muscato JJ, Weinberg JB: Peritoneal fluid cell populations in infertility patients. Fertil Steril 35: 696, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Simberkoff MS, Moldover NH, Weiss G: Bactericidal and opsonic activity of cirrhotic ascites and non ascitic peritoneal fluid. J Lab Clin Med 91: 831, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Allen L: The peritoneal stomata. Anal Rec 67: 89, 1936Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    Allen L, Wheatherford T: Role of fenestrated basement membrane in lymphatic absorption from peritoneal cavity. Am J Physiol 197: 551, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Vas SI: Microbiologic aspects of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 23: 83, 1982Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Grahame GR, Torchia MG, Dankewich KA, Fergusson IA: Surface-active material in peritoneal effluent of CAPD patients. Perit Dial Bull 5: 109, 1985Google Scholar
  141. 140.
    Breborowicz A, Sombolos K, Rodela H, Ogilvie R, Bargman J, Oreopoulos DG: Mechanism of phosphatidylcholine action during peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 7: 6, 1987Google Scholar
  142. 141.
    Dobbie JW, Pavlina T, Lloyd J, Johnson RC: Phosphatidylcholine synthesis by peritoneal mesothelium: its implications for peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 12: 31–36, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Dobbie JW, Lloyd JK: Mesothelium secretes lamellar bodies in a similar manner to type II pneumocyte secretion of surfactant. Perit Dial Int 9: 215, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Hjelle JT, Steidley KR, Pavlina TM, Dobbie JW: Choline incorporation into phospholipids in mesothelial cells in vitro. Perit Dial Int 13: 289, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Di Paolo N, Buoncristiani U, Capotondo L, Gaggiotti E, De Mia M, Rossi P, Sansoni E, Bemini M: Phosphatidylcholine and peritoneal transport during peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 44: 365, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Beavis J, Harwood JL, Coles GA, Williams JD: Intraperitoneal phosphatidylcholine levels in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis do not correlate with adequacy of ultrafiltration. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1954, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Mactier RA, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ, Moore H, Nolph KD: Influence of phosphatidylcholine on lymphatic absorption during peritoneal dialysis in the rat. Perit Dial Int 8: 179, 1988Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Yuan ZY, Rodela H, Hay JB, Oreopoulos DG, Johnston MG: Effect of phosphatidylcholine on lymphatic drainage and fluid loss from the peritoneal cavity of sheep. Kidney Int 46: 520, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Di Paolo B, Chakrabarti E, Maher JF: Phosphatidylcholine does not affect peritoneal transport of intact rabbits. Perit Dial Int 9: 211, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Henderson LW: The problem of peritoneal membrane area and permeability. Kidney Int 3: 405, 1973Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    Rippe B: Pathophysiological description of the ultrastructural changes of the peritoneal membrane during long term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Blood Purif 12: 211, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Krediet RT, Imholz ALT, Zemer D, Struijk DG, Koomen GCM: Clinical significance and detection of individual differences and changes in transperitoneal transport. Blood Purif 12: 221, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Blumenkrantz MJ, Gahl GM, Kopple JD, Kamdar AV, Jones MR, Kessel M, Coburn JW: Protein losses during peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 19: 53, 1981Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    Dulaney JT, Hatch FE: Peritoneal dialysis and loss of proteins: a review. Kidney Int 26: 253, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Young GA, Browjohn AM, Parsons FM: Protein losses in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 45: 196, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Zemel D, Krediet RT, Koomen GCM, Struijk DG, Arisz L: Day-to-day variability of protein transport used as a method for analyzing peritoneal permeability in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 11:217, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Steinhauer HB, Schollmeyer P: Prostaglandin-mediated loss of proteins during peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 29: 584, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Kaysen GA, Schoenfeld C: Albumin homeostasis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 25: 107, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Schoenfeld PC: Albumin is an unreliable marker of nutritional status. Semin Dial 5: 218, 1992Google Scholar
  160. 159.
    De Santo NG, Capodicasa G, Di Leo VA, Di Serafino A, Cirillo D, Esposito R, Fiore R, Cucciniello E, Damiano M, Buonadonna L, Di Lorio R et al.: Kinetics of amino acids equilibration in the dialysate during CAPD. Int J Artif Organs 4: 23, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Dornbros N, Oren A, Marliss EB et al.: Plasma amino acid profiles and amino acid losses in patients undergoing CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 2: 27, 1982Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    Kopple JD, Blumenkrantz MJ, Jones MR et al.: Plasma amino acid levels and amino acid losses during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Clin Nutr 36: 395, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Grodstein GP, Blumenkrantz MJ, Kopple JD, Moran JK, Coburn JW: Glucose absorption during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 19: 264, 1981Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    Lindholm B, Bergström J: Nutritional aspects of CAPD. in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Gokal R, Edimburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p 228Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Wideroe TE, Smeby LC, Mjaland S, Dahl K, Berg KJ, Aas TW: Long-term changes in transperitoneal water transport during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 38: 238, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Nolph KD, Ryan L, Moore H, Legrain M, Rottembourg J, Issad B, Montassine M, Mion C, Slingeneyer A, Bouzigues J, Oreopoulos DG: A survey of ultrafiltration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. An international cooperative study. Second report. Perit Dial Bull 4: 137, 1984Google Scholar
  167. 166.
    Armstrong VW, Creutzfeldt W, Ebert R, Fuchs C, Hilgers R, Scheler F: Effect of dialysate glucose load on plasma glucose and glucoregulatory hormones in CAPD patients. Nephron 39: 141, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Delarue J, Maingourd C, Lamisse F, Garrigue MA, Bagros P, Couet C: Glucose oxidation after a peritoneal and an oral glucose load in dialyzed patients. Kidney Int 45: 1147, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Appel G: Lipid abnormalities in renal disease. Kidney Int 39: 169, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Avram MM, Goldwasser P, Burrell DE, Antignani A, Fein PA, Mittman N: The uremie dyslipidemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Am J Kidney Dis 20: 324, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Sniderman A, Cianflone K, Kwiterovich PO Jr, Hutchinson T, Barre P, Prichard S: Hyperbetalipoproteinemia. The major dylipoproteinemia in patients with chronic renal failure treated with continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Atherosclerosis 65: 257, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Panarello G, Galianno G, De Baz H, Signori D, Cappeletti P, Tesio F: Does continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis induce hypercholesterolemia? Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2):S421, 1993Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    Faller B, Lameire N: Evolution of clinical parameters and peritoneal function in a cohort of CAPD patients followed over 7 years. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 280, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Chan MK, Varghese Z, Persaud JW, Baillod RA, Moorhead JF: Hyperlipidemia in patients on maintenance hemo-and peritoneal dialysis: the relative pathogenetic roles of triglyceride production and triglyceride removal. Clin Nephrol 17: 183, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Thillet J, Faucher C, Issad B, Allouache M, Chapman J, Jacobs C: Lipoprotein(a) in patients treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 22: 226, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Anwar N, Bhatnagar D, Short D, Mackness MI, Durrington PN, Prais H, Gokal R: Serum lipoprotein (a) concentrations in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 71, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Shozi T, Nishizawa Y, Nishitani H, Yamakawa M, Morii A: High serum lipoprotein (a) concentrations in uremic patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 38: 271, 1992Google Scholar
  178. 177.
    Webb AT, Reaveley DA, O’Donnell M, O’Connor B, Seed M, Brown EA: Lipoprotein (a) in patients on maintenance haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 609, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Kandoussi A, Cachera C, Pagniez D, Dracon M, Fruchart JC, Tacquet A: Plasma level of lipoprotein Lp(a) is high in predialysis or hemodialysis, but not in CAPD. Kidney Int 42: 424, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Weintraub M, Burstein A, Rassin T, Liron M, Ringel Y, Cabili S, Blum M, Peer G, Iaina A: Severe defect in clearing postprandial chylomicron remnants in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 42: 1247, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Atkins RC, Wood C: Hyperlipemia in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S415, 1993Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    Webb AT, Brown EA: Prevalence of symptomatic arterial disease and risk factors for its development in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S406, 1993Google Scholar
  183. 182.
    Dimitriadis A, Antoniou S, Hatzisavvas N, Pastore F, Kaldi I, Stangou M: The effect of simvastatin on dyslipidemia in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S434, 1993Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Harangoni R, Civardi F, Masi F, Cimizio R, Maltagriati L, Longhena GR: Dyslipemia in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: pharmacological therapy (simvastatin) versus hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S431, 1993Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Li PKT, Mak TWL, Lam CWK, Lai KN: Lovastatin treatment of dyslipoproteinemia in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S428, 1993Google Scholar
  186. 185.
    Jones RG, Dibble JB, Gibson J, Tompkins L, O’Kane M, Hobson SM, Young GA, Grant AM, Turney JH, Brown-john AM: Effect of dietary fish oil on lipid abnormalities in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 8: 203, 1988Google Scholar
  187. 186.
    Lempert KD, Rogers JS, Albrink MJ: Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and blood coagulation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 11: 170, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Fracasso A, Toffoletto P, Landini S, Morachiello P, Righetto F, Scanferla F, Genchi R, Roncali D, Bazzato G: Effect of hypertriglyceridemia correction by omega-3-fatty acids on peritoneal transport in continuous peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S437, 1993Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Blumberg A, Hanck A, Sander G: Vitamin nutrition in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 20: 244, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Digenis GE, Dombros N, Charytan C, Oreopoulos DG: Supplements for the CAPD patients (vitamins, folic acid, zinc, iron and anabolic steroids). Perit Dial Bull 7: 219, 1987Google Scholar
  191. 190.
    Ross EA, Shah GM, Reynolds RD, Sabo A, Pichon M: Vitamin B6 requirements of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 36: 702, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Aloni Y, Shaby S, Chaimovitz C: Losses of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in peritoneal fluid: possible mechanism for bone disease in uremic patients treated with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 9: 82, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Shany S, Rapoport J, Goligorsky M, Yankowitz N, Zuici I, Chaimovitz C: Losses of 1,25-and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the peritoneal fluid of patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 36: 111, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Shany S, Rapoport J, Zuili I, Yankowitz N, Chdimovitz C: Enhancement of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 42: 141, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Baeyer H, Gahl GM, Riedinger H, Borowzak R. Averdunk R, Schurig R, Kessel M: Adaptation of CAPD patients to the continuous peritoneal energy uptake. Kidney Int 23: 29, 1983Google Scholar
  196. 195.
    Hylander B, Barkeling B, Rossner S: Eating behavior in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 20: 592, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 196.
    Hylander BI, Dalton CB, Castell DO, Burkart J, Rossner S: Effect of intraperitoneal fluid volume changes on esophagal pressures: studies on patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 17: 307, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 197.
    Shaldon S: A cynical critique of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Legrain M, Amsterdam, Excerpta medica, 1980, p 137Google Scholar
  199. 198.
    Vas Si: Environmental protection and peritoneal dialysis garbage. Perit Dial Int 11: 12, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 199.
    Vas Si, Oreopoulos DG: Handle with care: hepatitis B antigen carrier in peritoneal dialysis units, Nephron 29: 105, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 200.
    Bailie GR, Kowalsky SF, Eisele G, Schwartzman MS: Disposal of CAPD waste in the community. Perit Dial Int 11: 72, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 201.
    Goodman W, Gallagher N, Sherrard DJ: Peritoneal dialysis fluid as a source of hepatitis antigen. Nephron 29: 107, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 202.
    Correa-Rotter R, Saldivar S, Soto LE, Ponce de Leon S, Ojeda F, Ruiz-Palacios G, Pena JC: Recovery of HIV antigen in peritoneal dialysis fluid. Perit Dial Int 10: 67, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 203.
    Gokal R: Who’s for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. (Editorial) Br Med J 306: 1559, 1993Google Scholar
  205. 204.
    Nolph KD: What’s new in peritoneal dialysis — an overview. Kidney Int 42: S148, 1992Google Scholar
  206. 205.
    Nissenson AR, Prichard SS, Cheng IKP, Gokal R, Kubota M, Maiorca R, Riella MC, Rottembourg J, Steward JH: Non-medical factors that impact on ESRD modality selection. Kidney Int 43: S120, 1993Google Scholar
  207. 206.
    Coles GA, Khanna R, Zimmermann SW, Wall J: When should chronic peritoneal dialysis be recommended over hemodialysis? Semin Dial 2: 213, 1989Google Scholar
  208. 207.
    Nissenson AR: Dialysis therapy in the elderly patient. Kidney Int Suppl 40: S51, 1993Google Scholar
  209. 208.
    Fenton SS, Desmeules M, Jeffery JR, Corman JL: Dialysis therapy among elderly patients; data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, 1981–1991. Adv Perit Dial 9: 124, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 209.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini G, Brunori G, Vonesh E, Manici L, Camerini C, Zusani R, Salomone M, Gaggiotti M, Cristinelli L: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the elderly. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S165, 1993Google Scholar
  211. 210.
    Gorban-Brennan N, Kliger AS, Finkelstein FO: CAPD therapy for patients over 80 years of age. Perit Dial Int 13: 140, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Wizemann V, Timio M, Alpert MA, Kramer W: Options in dialysis therapy: significance of cardiovascular findings. Kidney Int Suppl 43(Suppl 40): S85, 1993Google Scholar
  213. 212.
    Zimmermann SW: Diabetic patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: past, present and future. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S229, 1993Google Scholar
  214. 213.
    O’Donoghue D, Manos J, Pearson R, Scott P, Bakran A, Johnson R, Dyer P, Martin S, Gokal R: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation: a ten-year experience in a single center. Perit Dial Int 12: 242, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 214.
    Murphy BG, Hill CM, Middleton D, Doherty CC, Brown JH, Nelson WE, Kernohan RM, Keane PK, Douglas JF, McNamee PT: Increased renal allograft thrombosis in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 1166, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 215.
    Tebben JA, Rigsby MO, Selwyn PA, Brennan N, Kliger A, Finkelstein FO: Outcome of HIV infected patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 44: 191, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 216.
    Kimmel PL, Umana WO, Simmens SJ, Watson J, Bosch JP: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and survival of HIV infected patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 44: 373, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 217.
    Fine RN: Choosing a dialysis therapy for children with end stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 4: 249, 1983Google Scholar
  219. 218.
    Fine RN: Nutritional status and growth in children undergoing CAPD/CCPD/APD. Perit Dial Int 13: S247, 1993Google Scholar
  220. 219.
    Fine RN: The adolescent with end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 6: 81, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 220.
    Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, Twardowski ZJ, Khanna R, Gamboa S, Keshaviah P: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with a high flux membrane. ASAIO J 39: 904, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 221.
    Gulanicar AC, Jindal KK, Hirsch DJ: Is chronic peritoneal dialysis safe in patients with intraabdominal prosthetic vascular grafts? Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 215, 1991Google Scholar
  223. 222.
    Charytan C: CAPD after abdominal aortic graft surgery. Perit Dial Int 12: 227, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 223.
    Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG, Dombros N, Vas S, Williams P, Meema HE, Husdan M, Ogilvie R, Zellerman G, Roncari DAK, Clayton S, Izatt S: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis after three years: still a promising treatment. Perit Dial Bull 1: 24, 1981Google Scholar
  225. 224.
    Gilmour J, Wu G, Khanna R, Schilling H, Mitwalli A, Oreopoulos DG: Lont-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 5: 112, 1985Google Scholar
  226. 225.
    Holley JL: Patient-reported symptoms and adequacy of dialysis as measured by creatinine clearance. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S219, 1993Google Scholar
  227. 226.
    Dombros NV, Digenis GE, Balaskas EV, Sombolos K, Abraham G, Oreopoulos DG: Long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 39: 70, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 227.
    Hegstrom RM, Murray JS, Pendras JP, Burnell JM, Scribner BH: Two years’ experience with periodic hemodialysis in the treatment of chronic uremia. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 8: 266, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 228.
    Charra B, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Chazot C, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Laurent G: Survival as an index of adequacy of dialysis. Kidney Int 41: 1286, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 229.
    Mion C, Slingeneyer A, Canaud B: Pathophysiology and management of hypertension in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Contrib Nephrol 54: 202, 1986Google Scholar
  231. 230.
    Saldanha LF, Weiler EW, Gonick HC: Effect of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis on blood pressure control. Am J Kidney Dis 21: 184, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 231.
    Hamburger RJ, Christ PG, Morris PA, Luft C: Hypertension in dialysis patients: does CAPD provide an advantage? Adv Perit Dial 5: 91, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 232.
    Stablein DN, Hamburger RJ, Lindblad AS, Nolph KD, Novak JW: The effect of CAPD on hypertension control, a report of the national CAPD registry. Perit Dial Int 8: 141, 1988Google Scholar
  234. 233.
    Rodby RA, Vonesh EF, Korbet SM: Blood pressures in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Am J Kidney Dis 23: 401, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 234.
    Korzets Z, Erdberg A, Golan E, Bernheim J: Does diurnal variation in blood pressure exist in CAPD patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 274, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 235.
    Cheigh JS, Serur D, Paguirigan M, Stenzel KH, Rubin A: How well is hypertension controlled in CAPD patients? Adv Perit Dial 10:55, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 236.
    Raine AEG, Roger SD: Effects of erythropoietin on blood pressure. Am J Kidney Dis 18: 76, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Eschbach JW: Erythropoietin 1991 — an overview. Am J Kidney Dis 18(Suppl 1): 3, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 238.
    Favazza A, Motanaro D, Messa P, Antonucci F, Gropuzzo M, Mioni G: Peritoneal clearances in hypertensive CAPD patients after oral administration of clonidine, enalapril, and nifepidine. Perit Dial Int 12: 287, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 239.
    De Paepe MBJ, Schelstraete KHG, Ringoir SM, Lameire NH: Influence on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis on the anemia of end stage renal disease. Kidney Int 23: 744, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 240.
    Saltissi D, Coles GA, Napier JAE, Bentley P: The hematological response to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 22: 21, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 241.
    Korbet SM: Comparison of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the management of anemia related to chronic renal disease. Semin Nephrol 9(Suppl 1): 9, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 242.
    Zappacosta AR, Caro J, Erslev A: Normalization of hematocrit in patients with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The role of erythropoietin. Am J Med 72: 53, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 243.
    Chandra M, McVicar M, Clemons G, Mossey RT, Wilkes BM: Role of erythropoietin in the reversal of anemia of renal failure with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 46: 312, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 244.
    Coles GA, Cavill I: Erythropoesis in the anemia of chronic renal failure: the response to CAPD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1: 170, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 245.
    Lameire N, Matthys E, De Paepe M, Sys E, Schelstraete K, Ringoir S: Red-cell survival in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 6: 65. 1986Google Scholar
  247. 246.
    Salahudeen AK, Keavy PM, Hawkins T, Wilkinson E: Is anaemia during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis really better than during haemodialysis? Lancet 2: 1046, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 247.
    Hefti JE, Blumberg A, Marti HR: Red cell survival and red cell enzymes in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 19: 232, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 248.
    Lamperi S, Carozzi S, Icardi A: In vitro and in vivo studies of erythropoiesis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 3: 94, 1983Google Scholar
  250. 249.
    McGonigle RJS, Husserl F, Wallin JD, Fisher JW: Hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effects on erythropoiesis in renal failure. Kidney Int 25: 430, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 250.
    Wideroe TE, Sanengen T, Halvorsen S: Erythropoietin and uremic toxicity during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 24(Suppl 16): S208, 1983Google Scholar
  252. 251.
    Chandra M, Clemons GK, McVicar M, Wilkes B, Bluestone PA, Mailloux LU, Mossey RT: Serum erythropoietin levels and hematocrit in end-stage renal disease: influence of the mode of dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 13: 208, 1988Google Scholar
  253. 252.
    Chandra M, Clemons G, Sahdev I, McVicar M, Bluestone P: Intraperitoneal production of erythropoietin with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 7: 281, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 253.
    Nolph KD, Prowant BF, Moore HL, Reyad SE: Hematocrit and residual renal creatinine clearance in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 10: 279, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 254.
    Korbet SM: Anemia and erythropoietin in hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 43(Suppl 40): S111, 1993Google Scholar
  256. 255.
    Boelaert JR, Schurgers ML, Matthys EG, Belpaire FM, Daneels RF, De Cre MJ, Bogaert MG: Comparative pharmacokinetics of recombinant erythropoietin administered by the intravenous, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 9: 95, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 256.
    MacDougall IC, Roberts DE, Neubert P, Dharmasena AD, Coles GA, Williams JD: Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 1: 425, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 257.
    Bommer J, Santleben W, Koch KM, Baldamus CA, Grutzmacher P, Scigalla P: Variations of recombinant human erythropoietin applications in hemodialysis patients. Contrib Nephrol 76: 149, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 258.
    Besarab A, Flaharty KK, Erslev AJ, McCrea JB, Vlasses PH, Medina F, Caro J, Morris E: Clinical pharmacology and economics of recombinant human erythropoietin in end-stage renal disease: the case for subcutaneous administration. J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1405, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 259.
    Eidemak I, Friedberg MO, Ladefoged SD, Lokkegaard H, Pedersen E, Skielboe M: Intravenous versus subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients on haemodialysis and CAPD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 526, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 260.
    Bargman JM, Jones JE, Petro JM: The pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal erythropoietin administered undiluted or diluted in dialysate. Perit Dial Int 12: 369, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 261.
    Frenken LA, Struijk DG, Coppens PJ, Tiggeler RG, Krediet RT, Koene RA: Intraperitoneal administration of recombinant human erythropoietin. Perit Dial Int 12: 378, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 262.
    Nasu T, Mitui H, Shinohara Y, Hayashida S, Ohtuka H: Effect of erythropoietin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: comparison between intravenous and intraperitoneal administration. Perit Dial Int 12: 373, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 263.
    Nissenson AR: Erythropoietin and peritoneal dialysis: the efficacy of intraperitoneal dosing. Perit Dial Int 12: 350, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 264.
    Nissenson AR, Swartz R, Zimmerman SW, Watson A, and the Epogen study group: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of recombinant human erythropoietin in peritoneal dialysis patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 1: 405, 1990Google Scholar
  266. 265.
    Stevens JM, Auer J, Strong CA, Hughes RT, Oliver DO, Winearls CG, Cotes PM: Stepwise correction of anaemia by subcutaneous administration of human recombinant erythropoietin in patients with chronic renal failure maintained by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 487, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 266.
    Macdougall IC, Davies ME, Hutton RD, Cavill I, Lewis NP, Coles GA, Williams JD: The treatment of renal anaemia in CAPD patients with recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5: 950, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 267.
    Eisele G, Bailie GR, Clement C. Wong E: Erythiopoietin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: experience with subcutaneous administration. Perit Dial Int 12: 34, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 268.
    Hood VL, Ingraham A: Erythropoietin for chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: once a week can be enough. J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1545, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 269.
    Nomoto Y, Kawaguchi Y, Kubota M, Tagawa H, Kubo K, Ogura Y, Shoji T, Kawada Y, Koshikawa S, Mimura N, Maeda T: A multicenter study with once a week or once every two weeks high-dose subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 14: 56, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 270.
    Auer J, Simon G, Stevens J, Griffiths P, Howarth D. Anastassiades E, Gokal R, Oliver D: Quality of life improvements in CAPD patients treated with subcutaeously administered erythropoietin for anemia. Perit Dial Int 12: 40, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 271.
    Balaskas EV, Melamed IR, Gupta A, Bargman J, Oreopoulos DG: Effect of erythropoietin treatment on nutritional status of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S544, 1993Google Scholar
  273. 272.
    Pollock CA, Wyndham R, Collett PV, Elder G, Field MJ, Kalowski S, Laurence JR, Waugh DA, George CRP: Effects of EPO therapy on the lipid profile in end stage renal failure. Kidney Int 45: 897, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 273.
    Balaskas EV, Melamed IR, Gupta A, Bargman J, Oreopoulos DG: Influence of erythropoietin on blood pressure in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S553, 1993Google Scholar
  275. 274.
    Meisl F, Manker W, Coisl U, Neyer U, Konig P: Peritonitis does not affect erythropoietin efficacy in patients on CAPD. (Abstract) Kidney Int 37: 332, 1990Google Scholar
  276. 275.
    Korbet SM, Vonesh EF, Firanek CA: The effect of hematocrit on peritoneal transport. Am J Kidney Dis 18: 573, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 276.
    Steinhauer HB, Lubrich-Birkner I, Dreyling KW, Horl WH, Schollmeyer P: Increased ultrafiltratian after erythropoietin induced correction of renal anaemia in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 53: 91, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 277.
    Hutchison AJ, Ofsthun NJ, Howarth D, Gokal R: The effect of hemoglobin concentration on peritoneal mass transfer and drain volumes. Perit Dial Int 12: 230, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 278.
    Taylor JE, MacTier RA, Henderson IS. Belch JJ, Stewart WK: Dialysis efficiency in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients treated with erythropoietin. Perit Dial Int 12:221, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 279.
    Heimburger O, Barany P, Werynski A, Waniemski S, Tranaeus A, Lindholm B: The impact of anaemia correction with EPO on peritoneal transport kinetics. (Abstract) Perit Dial Bull 12: 125, 1992Google Scholar
  281. 280.
    Burkart JM, Freedman BI, Rocco MV: The effect of increasing hematocrit on peritoneal transport kinetics. Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1726, 1994Google Scholar
  282. 281.
    Brown CB, Hamdy NA, Boletis J, Boyle G, Beneton MN, Charlesworth D, Kanis JA: Osteodystrophy in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S454, 1993Google Scholar
  283. 282.
    Armstrong A, Cunningham J: The treatment of metabolic bone disease in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S51, 1994Google Scholar
  284. 283.
    Joffe P, Heaf JG, Hyldstrup L: Osteocalcin: a non-invasive index of metabolic bone disease in patients treated by CAPD. Kidney Int 46: 838, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 284.
    Martis L, Serkes KD, Nolph KD: Calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder: is there a need to adjust peritoneal dialysate calcium concentrations for patients using CaCO3? Perit Dial Int 9: 325, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 285.
    Weinreich T, Rambausek M, Ritz E: Is control of secondary hyperparathyroidism optimal with the currently used calcium concentration in the CAPD fluid? Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 843, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 286.
    Delmez JA: Calcitriol and secondary hyperparathyroidism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13: 95, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 287.
    Delmez JA: Removal of phosphorus by peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S461, 1993Google Scholar
  289. 288.
    Delmez JA, Slatopolsky E, Martin KLJ, Gearing BN, Harter HR: Minerals, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 21: 862, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 289.
    Hercz G, Coburn J: Prevention of phosphate retention and hyperphosphatemia in uremia. Kidney Int 32(Suppl 22): S215, 1987Google Scholar
  291. 290.
    Fournier A, Moriniere P, Sebert JL, Dkhissi H, Atik A, Leflon P, Renaud H, Gueris J, Gregoire I, Idrissi A, Garabedian M: Calcium carbonate, an aluminum-free agent for control of hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyperparathyroidism in uremia. Kidney Int 29(Suppl 18): S114, 1986Google Scholar
  292. 291.
    Ramirez JA, Emmett M, White MG, Fathi N, Santa Ana CA, Morawski SG, Fordtran JS: The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 30: 753, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 292.
    Sheikh MS, Maguire JA, Emmett M, Santa Ana CA, Nicar MJ, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS: Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. J Clin Invest 83: 66, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 293.
    Hercz G, Kraut JA, Andress DA, Howard N, Roberts C, Shinaberger JH, Sherrard DJ, Coburn JW: Use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in dialysis patients. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 12: 314, 1986Google Scholar
  295. 294.
    Tespersen B, Jensen JD, Nielsen HK, Lauridsen IN, Andersen HJF, Poulsen JH, Gammelgaard B, Pedersen EB: Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTA (1–94) and bone mineral content in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 98, 1991Google Scholar
  296. 295.
    Stein HD, Yudis H, Sirota RA: Calcium carbonate and a phosphate binder. N Engl J Med 316: 109, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 296.
    Davenport A, Goel S, MacKenzie JC: Audit of the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder in 100 patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 632, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 297.
    Piraino B: A review of clinical trials with 2.5 mEq/L calcium dialysate. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S464, 1993Google Scholar
  299. 298.
    Weinreich T, Colombi A, Echterhoff HH, Mielke G, Neber M, Ziegelmayer C, Passlick-Deetjen J: Transperitoneal calcium mass-transfer with a low calcium concentration (1.0 mM). Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S467, 1993Google Scholar
  300. 299.
    Carozzi S, Nasini MG, Santoni O, Pietrucci A: Low-and high-turnover bone disease in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effects of low-Ca2 + peritoneal dialysis solution. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S473, 1993Google Scholar
  301. 300.
    Rotellar C, Kinsel V, Goggins M, Tarman G, Stull M, Mazzoni MJ, Mosher WF, Rakowski TA, Winchester JF: Does low-calcium dialysate accelerate secondary hyperparathyroidism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients? Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S471, 1993Google Scholar
  302. 301.
    Salusky I, Fine RN, Kangarloo H, Gold R, Launier L, Goodman WG, Brill JE, Gilli G, Slatopolsky E, Coburn JW: ‘High dose’ calcitriol for control of renal osteodystrophy in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 32: 89, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 302.
    Martin KI, Ballal HS, Domoto DT, Blalock S, Weinder M: Pulse oral calcitriol for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 19: 540, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 303.
    Delmez JA, Dougan CS, Gearing BK, Rothstein M, Windus DW, Rapp N, Slatopolsky E: The effects of intraperitoneal calcitriol on calcium and parathyroid hormone. Kidney Int 31: 795, 1997Google Scholar
  305. 304.
    Rolla D, Paoletti E, Marsano L, Mulas D, Peloso G, Cannella G: Effects of subcutaneous calcitriol administration on plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis uremic patients. Perit Dial Int 13: 118, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 305.
    Selgas R, Martinez ME, Miranda B, Bajo MA, Romero JR, Ausejo M, Sanchez-Cabezudo MJ, Lopez-Revuelta K, Sanchez-Sicilia L: The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of calcitriol administered subcutaneously in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13: 122, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 306.
    Schaefer K, Umlauf E, Von Herrath D: Reduced risk of hypercalcemia for hemodialysis patients by administering calcitriol at night. Am J Kidney Dis 19: 460, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 307.
    Goodman WG, Ramirez JA, Belin TR, Chon Y, Gales B, Segre GV, Salusky IB: Development of adynamic bone in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism after intermittent calcitriol therapy. Kidney Int 46: 1160, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 308.
    Buchwald R, Pena JC: Evaluation of nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 295, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 309.
    Jones MR: Etiology of severe malnutrition: results of an international cross-sectional study on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 23: 412, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 310.
    Bergström J, Alvestrand A, Lindholm B, Tranaeus A: Relationship between Kt/V and protein catabolic rate is different in continuous peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 358, 1991Google Scholar
  312. 311.
    Lindsay RM, Spanner E, Heidenheim P, Kortas C, Blake PG: PCR, Kt/V and membrane. Kidney Int 43(Suppl 41): S268, 1993Google Scholar
  313. 312.
    Gotch FA: Dependence of normalized protein catabolic rate on Kt/V in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: not a mathematical artifact. Perit Dial Int 13: 173, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 313.
    Goldwasser P, Feldman JG: The observed correlation between PCRN and KT/V is not a mathematical artifact? (Letter) Perit Dial Int 14: 404, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 314.
    Blake PG: Dependence of normalized protein catabolic rate on Kt/V in C APD: not a mathematical artifact, (letter) Perit Dial Int 14:405, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 315.
    Nelson EE, Hong CD, Pesce AL, Peterson DW, Singh S, Pollak VE: Anthropometric norms in dialysis population. Am J Kidney Dis 16: 32, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 316.
    Pollock CA, Allen BJ, Warden RA, Caterson RJ, Blagojevic N, Cocksedge B, Mahony JF, Waugh DA, Ibels LS: Total body nitrogen by neutron activation in maintenance dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 16: 38, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 317.
    Schilling H, Wu G, Pettit J, Harrison J, McNeill K, Siccion Z, Oreopoulos DG: Nutritional status of patients on longterm CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 5: 12. 1985Google Scholar
  319. 318.
    Panzetta G, Guerra U, D’Angelo A, Sandrini S, Terzi A, Oldrizzi L, Maiorca R: Body composition and nutritional status in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 23: 18, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 319.
    Lindholm B, Alvestrand A, Furst P, Bergstom J: Plasma and muscle free amino acids during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 35: 1219, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 320.
    Schmidt RJ, Dumler F: Bioelectrical impedance analysis: a promising predictive tool for nutritional assessment in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13: 250, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 321.
    Chumlea WC, Guo SS, Kuczmarski RJ, Vellas B: Bioelectric and anthropometric assessments as reference data in the elderly. J Nutr 123: 449, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 322.
    Mazers RB: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for total-body and regional bone-mineral and soft-tissue composition. Am J Clin Nutr 51: 1106, 1990Google Scholar
  324. 323.
    Fiorotto ML, Cochran WJ, Funk RC, Sheng HP, Klish WJ: Total body electrical conductivity measurements: effects of body composition and geometry. Am J Physiol 252: 794, 1987Google Scholar
  325. 324.
    Lo WK, Prowant BF, Moore HL, Gamboa SB, Nolph KD, Flynn MA, Londeree B, Keshaviah P, Emerson P: Comparison of different measurements of lean body mass in normal individuals and in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 23: 74, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 325.
    Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Moore HL, Prowant B, Emerson PF, Meyer M, Twardowski Z, Khanna R, Ponferrada L, Collins A: Lean body mass estimation by creatinine kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1475, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 326.
    Bhatla B, Moore AL, Prowant B, Nolph KD, Singh A: Lean body mass measurement in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients using creatinine kinetics, bioimpedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 488, 1994Google Scholar
  328. 327.
    Brooks MR, Brandes JC: Changes in lean body mass in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 488, 1994Google Scholar
  329. 328.
    Haraldsson B, Johansson AC, Attman PO: Creatinine generation rate: a blunt tool for assessments of lean body mass. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 492, 1994Google Scholar
  330. 329.
    Lynn R, Ginsberg N, Stall S, Brignol YF, Zabetakis P, De Vita M, Wang J, Pierson R, Ma R: A comparison of four methods for estimating fat-free mass in dialysis patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 497, 1994Google Scholar
  331. 330.
    Blagg CR, Liedtke RJ, Batjer JD, Racoosin B, Sawyer TK, Wick MJ, Lawson L, Wilkens K: Serum albumin concentration-related health care financing administration quality assurance cirterion is method-dependent: revision is necessary. Am J Kidney Dis 21: 138, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 331.
    Heimburger O, Bergström J, Lindholm B: Is serum albumin an index of nutritional status in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients? Perit Dial Int 14: 108, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 332.
    Shimomura A, Tahara D, Azekura H: Nutritional improvement in elderly CAPD patients with additional high protein foods. Adv Perit Dial 9: 80, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 333.
    De Fitzer CWH, Oe LP, De Fitzer MW, Van den Meulen J, Donker AXM, De Vries PHJM: Is serum albumin a marker for nutritional status in dialysis patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 402, 1993Google Scholar
  335. 334.
    Saxenhofer H, Horber FF, Jaeger P: Predictors; of nutritional status in CAPD patients. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 416, 1993Google Scholar
  336. 335.
    Heide B, Pierratos A, Khanna R, Pettit J, Ogilvie R, Harrison J, McNeil K, Siccion Z, Oreopoulos DG: Nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 3: 138, 1983Google Scholar
  337. 336.
    Gokal R: Quality of life in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. Kidney Int 43(Suppl 40): S23, 1993Google Scholar
  338. 337.
    Churchill DN: The effect of treatment modality on the quality of life for patients with end-stage renal disease. Adv Perit Dial 4: 63, 1988Google Scholar
  339. 338.
    Evans RW, Manninen DL, Garrison LP, Hart LG, Blagg CR, Gutman RA, Hull AR, Lowrie EG: The quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 312: 553, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 339.
    Wolcott DL, Wellisch DK, Marsh JT, Schaeffer J, Landsverk J, Nissenson AR: Relationship of dialysis modality and other factors to cognitive function in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 12: 275, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 340.
    Wolcott DL, Nissenson AR: Quality of life in chronic dialysis patients: a critical comparison of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 11: 402, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 341.
    Bremer BA, McCauley CR, Wrona RM, Johnson JP: Quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a reexamination. Am J Kidney Dis 13: 200, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 342.
    Julius M, Kneisley JD, Carpentier-Alting P, Hawthorne VM, Wolfe RA, Port FK: A comparison of employment rates of patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis vs in-center hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 149: 839, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 343.
    Evans RW: Recombinant human erythropoietin and the quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients: a comparative analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 18: 62, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 344.
    Nolph KD, Cutler SJ, Steinberg SM, Novak JW: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the United States: a three-year study. Kidney Int 28: 198, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 345.
    Finkelstein FO, Sorkin M, Cramton CW, Nolph KD: Initiatives in peritoneal dialysis: where do we go from here? (conference report). Perit Dial Int 11: 274, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 346.
    Banks JE, Langenohl KM, Brandes JC: Inadequate dialysis is a major reason for transfer from CAPD to hemodialysis. (Abstract) Perit Dial Int 12(Suppl 1): 97, 1992Google Scholar
  348. 347.
    Tranaeus A, Heimburger O, Lindholm B, Bergstrom J: Six years’ experience of CAPD at one centre a survey of major findings. Perit Dial Int 8: 31, 1988Google Scholar
  349. 348.
    Keen ML, Lipps BJ, Gotch FA: The measured creatinine generation rate in CAPD suggests overall compliance with prescribed exchanges may be only 78%. Perit Dial Int 13: S16, 1993Google Scholar
  350. 349.
    Warren PJ, Brandes JC: Compliance with the peritoneal dialysis prescription is poor. J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1627, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 350.
    Caruana RJ, Smith KL, Hess CP, Perez JC, Cheek PL: Dialysate dumping: a novel cause of inadequate dialysis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 9: 319, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 351.
    Bergström J: Protein catabolic factors in patients on renal replacement therapy. Blood Purif 3: 215, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 352.
    Detsky A, McLaighlin JR, Baker JP, Johnston N, Whittaker S, Mendelson RA, Jeejeebhoy KN: What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status? J Parent Enter Nutr 11: 8, 1997Google Scholar
  354. 353.
    Qureshi AR, Lindholm B, Garcia E, Groth CG, Bergström J: Tryptophan and its metabolites in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and following renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 791, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 354.
    Heimburger O, Bergström J, Lindholm B: Maintenance of optimal nutrition in CAPD. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S39, 1994Google Scholar
  356. 355.
    Young GA, Dibble JB, Hobson SM, Tompkins L, Gibson J, Turney JH, Brownjohn AM: The use of amino acid based CAPD fluid over 12 weeks. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4: 285, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 356.
    Arfeen S, Goodship TH, Kirkwood A, Ward MK: The nutritional/metabolic and hormonal effects of 8 weeks of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with a 1% amino acid solution. Clin Nephrol 33: 192, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 357.
    Dombros NV: Chronic intraperitoneal administration of amino acids does not improve the nutritional status of malnourished continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S487, 1993Google Scholar
  359. 358.
    Korbet SM, Rodby RA: Peritoneal membrane failure: differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Semin Dial 7: 128, 1994Google Scholar
  360. 359.
    Slingeneyer A, Canaud B, Mion C: Permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity of the peritoneum in long term peritoneal dialysis: an epidemiological study. Nephron 33: 133, 1982Google Scholar
  361. 360.
    Krediet RT, Zuyderhoudt MJ, Boeschoten EW, Arisz L: Alterations in the peritoneal transport of water and solutes during peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Eur J Clin Invest 17: 43, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 361.
    Coles GA, Williams JD: The management of ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S14, 1994Google Scholar
  363. 362.
    Durand PY, Chanliau J, Gamberoni J, Hestin D, Kessler M: Intraperitoneal pressure, peritoneal permeability, and ultrafiltration in CAPD. Adv Perit Dial 8: 22, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 363.
    Pollock CA, Ibels LS, Hallett MD, Cocksedge B, Caterson RJ, Mahony JF, Farrell PC: Loss of ultrafiltration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 107, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 364.
    Heimburger O, Waniewski J, Werynski A, Tranaeus A, Lindholm B: Peritoneal transport in CAPD patients with permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity. Kidney Int 38: 495, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 325.
    De Alvaro F, Castro MJ, Dapena F, Bajo MA, Bernandez-Reyes MJ, Romero JR, Jimenez C, Miranda B, Seigas R: Peritoneal resting is beneficial in peritoneal hyperpermeability and ultrafiltration failure. Adv Perit Dial 9: 56. 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 366.
    Chan H, Abraham G, Oreopoulos DG: Oral lecithin improves ultrafiltration in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 203, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 367.
    Krack G, Viglino G, Cavalli PL, Gandolfo C, Magliano G, Cantaluppi A, Peluso F: Intraperitoneal administration of phosphatidylcholine improves ultrafiltration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 12: 359, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 368.
    De Vecchi A, Castelnovo C, Guerra L, Scalamogna A: Phosphatidylcholine administration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with reduced ultrafiltration. Perit Dial Int 9: 207, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 369.
    Chan PC, Tam SC, Robinson JD, Yu L, Ip MS, Chan CY, Cheng IK: Effect of phosphatidylcholine on ultrafiltration on patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 59: 100, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 370.
    Krediet RT, Struijk DG, Boeschoten EW, Koomen GCM, Stouthard JML, Hoek FJ, Arisz L: The time course of peritoneal transport kinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients who develop sclerosing peritonitis. Am J Kidney Dis 13: 299, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 371.
    Mion C, Slingeneyer A: Sclerosing peritonitis: what is it? in Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by La Greca G, Chiaramonte S, Fabris A, Feriani M, Ronco C, Milan, Wichtig Editore, 1986, p 215Google Scholar
  373. 372.
    Slingeneyer A: Preliminary report on a cooperative international study on sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Contrib Nephrol 57: 239, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 373.
    Lo WK, Chan KT, Leung AC, Pang SW, Tse CY: Sclerosing peritonitis complicating prolonged use of chlorhexidine in alcohol in the connection procedure for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 11: 166, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 374.
    Korzets A, Korsets Z, Peer G, Papo J, Stern D, Bernheim J, Blum M: Sclerosing peritonitis. Possible early diagnosis by computerized tomography of the abdomen. Am J Nephrol 8: 143, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 375.
    Kopecky RT, Grymoyer PA, Witanowski LS, Thomas FD, Wojtazsek J, Reinitz CR: Prospective peritoneal scintigraphy in patients begining continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 15: 228, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 376.
    Mactier RA, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ, Nolph KD: Ultrafiltration failure in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis due to excessive peritoneal cavity lymphatic absorption. Am J Kidney Dis 10: 461, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 377.
    Krediet RT, Struijk DG, Koomen GCM, Arisz L: Peritoneal fluid kinetics during CAPD measured with intraperitoneal dextran 70. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 37: 662, 1991Google Scholar
  379. 378.
    Waniewski J, Heimburger O, Park MS, Werynski A, Lindholm B: Methods for estimation of peritoneal dialysate volume and reabsorption rate using macromolecular markers. Perit Dial Int 14: 8, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 379.
    Lameire N, Bernaert P, Lambert MC, Vijt D: Cardiovascular risk factors and their management in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S31, 1994Google Scholar
  381. 380.
    Huting J, Alpert MA: Course of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in end-stage renal disease on long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 39: 81, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 381.
    Huting J, Schutterle G: Cardiovascular factors influencing survival in end-stage renal disease treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Cardiol 69: 123, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 382.
    Peer G, Korzets A, Hochhauzer E, Eschbar Y, Blum M, Aviram A: Cardiac arrhythmia during chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron 45: 192, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 383.
    Canziani ME, Saragoça MA, Draide SA, Barbieri A, Ajzen H: Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiac arrythmias in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S409, 1993Google Scholar
  385. 384.
    Caravaca F, Dominguez C, Machado V, Arrobas M: Vasovagal syncope related to peritoneal dialysate infusion. Perit Dial Int 13: 63, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 385.
    Handa SP: Vasovagal syncopy related to peritoneal dialysate infusion. (letter) Perit Dial Int 13: 240, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 386.
    Cavagna R, Schiavon R, Tessarin E, Paca N, Scorrano D, Casol D, De Silvestro L: Risk factors of ischemic cardiac disease in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S402, 1993Google Scholar
  388. 387.
    Brown PM, Johnston KN, Fenton SS, Cattran DC: Symptomatic exacerbation of peripheral vascular disease with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol 16: 258, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 388.
    Khanna R, Wu G, Vas S, Oreopoulos DG: Mortality and morbidity on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. ASAIO J 6: 197, 1983Google Scholar
  390. 389.
    Leenen FHH, Shah P, Boer WH, Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG: Hypotension on CAPD: an approach to treatment. Perit Dial Bull 3(Suppl 1): S33, 1983Google Scholar
  391. 390.
    Goodman CE, Husserl FE: Etiology, prevention and treatment of back pain in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Bull 1: 119, 1981Google Scholar
  392. 391.
    Boeschoten EW, Zuyderhoudt FMJ, Krediet RT, Arisz L: Changes in weight and lipid concentrations during CAPD treatment. Perit Dial Int 8: 19, 1988Google Scholar
  393. 392.
    Canaud B, Assounga A, Flavier JL, Slingeneyer A, Aznar R, Robinet-Lévy M, Mion C: Beta-2 microglobulin serum levels in maintenance dialysis. What does it mean? Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 34: 923, 1988Google Scholar
  394. 393.
    Di Raimondo CR, McCarley P, Stone WJ: Beta-2 microglobulin in peritoneal dialysis patients: serum levels and peritoneal clearances. Perit Dial Int 8: 43, 1988Google Scholar
  395. 394.
    Lysaght MJ, Pollock CA, Moran JE, Ibels LS, Farrell PC: Beta-2 microglobulin removal during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 29, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 395.
    Mistry CD, O’Donoghue DJ, Nelson S, Gokal R, Ballardie FW: Kinetic and clinical studies of beta-2 microglobulin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: influence of renal enhanced peritoneal clearances using glucose polymer. Nephrol Dial Transplant 5: 513, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 396.
    Catizone L, Cocchi R, Fusaroli M, Zucchelli P: Relationship between plasma beta 2-microglobulin and residual diuresis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S523, 1993Google Scholar
  398. 397.
    Colombi A, Wegmann W: Beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis in a patient on long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 321, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 398.
    Buoncristiani U, Cancarini GC, Giangrande A, Catizone L, Ferrara R, Carobi C, Di Paolo N: Carpal tunnel syndrome in CAPD patients. in Current Concepts in Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Ota K, Maher J, Winchester J, Hirszel P, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, Excerpta medica, International Congress series No 974, 1992, p 729Google Scholar
  400. 399.
    Thomson BJ, Jenkins DAS, Allan PL, Elton RA, Winney RJ: Acquired cystic disease of the kidney in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure: a study of prevalence and aetiology. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1: 38, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 400.
    Ishikawa I: Acquired renal cystic disease and its complications in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Perit Dial Int 12: 292, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 401.
    Wadhwa NK, Seliger M, Greenberg HE, Bergofsky E, Mendelson WB: Sleep related respiratory disorders in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 12: 51, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 402.
    Tzamaloukas AH, Kapsner CO: Diagnosis and management of hypertonicity in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 8: 225, 1988Google Scholar
  404. 403.
    Oren A, Husdan H, Cheng PT, Khanna R, Pierratos A, Gigenis G, Oreopoulos DG: Calcium oxalate kidney stones in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 25: 534, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 404.
    Backenroth R, Spinowitz BS, Galler M, Golden RA, Rascoff JH, Charytan C: Comparison of eosinophilia in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 8: 186, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 405.
    Patterson R, Lerner C, Roberts M, Moel D, Grammer LC: Ethylene oxide (ETO) as a possible cause of an allergic reaction during peritoneal dialysis and immunologic detection of ETO from dialysis tubing. Am J Kidney Dis 8: 64, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 406.
    Gentil MA, Carriazo A, Pavon MI, Rosado M, Castillo D Ramos B, Algarra GR, Tejuca F, Banasco VP, Milan JA: Comparison of survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hospital haemodialysis: a multicentric study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 6: 444, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 407.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Brunori G, Camerini C, Manili L: Morbidity and mortality of CAPD and hemodialysis. Kidney Int Suppl 43(Suppl 40): S4, 1993Google Scholar
  409. 408.
    Held PJ, Port FK, Turenne MC, Gaylin DS, Hamburger RJ, Wolfe RA: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis: comparison of patient mortality with adjustment for comorbid conditions. Kidney Int 45: 1163, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 409.
    Cox D: Regression models and life tables. J Roy Stat Sc 34: 187, 1972Google Scholar
  411. 410.
    Lameire NH, Vanholder R, Veyt D, Lambert MC, Ringoir S: A longitudinal, five year survey of urea kinetic parameters in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 42: 426, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 411.
    Tattersall JE, Doyle S, Greenwood RN, Farrington K: Kinetic modelling and underdialysis in CAPD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 535, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 412.
    Brandes JC, Piering WF, Berez JP, Blumenthal SS, Fritsche C: Clinical outcome of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis predicted by urea and creatinine kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1430, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 413.
    Selgas R, Bajo MA, Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Bosque E, Lopez-Revuelta K, Jimenez C, Borrego F, De Alvaro F: An analysis of adequacy of dialysis in a selected population on CAPD for over 3 years: the influence of urea and creatinine kinetics. Nephrol Dial Transplant 8: 1244, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 414.
    Arkouche W, Delawari E, My H, Caville M, Abdullah E, Traeger J: Quantification of adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S215, 1993Google Scholar
  416. 415.
    Churchill DN, Thorpe K, Taylor DW, Keshaviah P, for the Canada-USA study of peritoneal dialysis adequacy: Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 439, 1994Google Scholar
  417. 416.
    Churchill DN: Adequacy of dialysis: how much dialysis do we need? Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S2, 1994Google Scholar
  418. 417.
    Blake PG, Sombolos K, Abraham G, Weissgarten J, Pemberton R, Chu GL, Oreopoulos DG: Lack of correlation between urea kinetic indices and clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 39: 700, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 418.
    Lowrie EG, Lew NL: Death risk in hemodialysis patients: the predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis 15: 458, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 419.
    Blake PG, Flowerdew G, Blake RM, Oreopoulos DG: Serum albumin in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-predictors and correlations with outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 3: 1501, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 420.
    Spiegel DM, Anderson M, Campbell U, Hall K, Kelly G, McClure E, Breyer JA: Serum albumin: a marker for morbidity in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 21:26, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 421.
    Rocco MV, Jordan JR, Burkart JM: The efficacy number as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1184, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 422.
    Spiegel DM, Breyer JA: Serum albumin: a predictor of long-term outcome in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 23: 283, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 423.
    Avram MM, Goldwasser P, Erroa M, Fein PA: Predictors of survival in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: the importance of prealbumin and other nutritional and metabolic markers. Am J Kidney Dis 23: 91, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 424.
    Struijk DG, Krediet RT, Koomen GCM, Boeschoten EW, Arisz L: The effect of serum albumin at the start of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment on patient survival. Perit Dial Int 14: 121, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 425.
    Bloembergen WE, Port FK, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA: A comparison of mortality between patients treated with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 177, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 426.
    Bloembergen WE, Port FK, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA: A comparison of causes of death between patients treated with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 184, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 427.
    Teehan BP, Hakim R: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis — Quo vadis? J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 139, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 428.
    United States Renal Data System, USRDS 1992 Annual Data Report: V. Characteristics of dialysis prescriptions in the US 1986–1987. Am J Kidney Dis 20(Suppl 2): 39, 1992Google Scholar
  430. 429.
    Habach G, Bloembergen WE, Mauger EA, Wolfe RA, Port FK: Hospitalisation among United States dialysis patients: hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 1940, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 430.
    Hakim RM, Depner TA, Parker III TF: Adequacy of hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 20: 107, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 431. Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis. An NIH Consensus Conference Statement. Ann Intern Medicine 121: 62, 1994Google Scholar
  433. 432.
    Oreopoulos DG: Peritoneal dialysis is here to stay. Nephron 24: 7, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 433.
    Maiorca R, Cancarini GC, Manili L, Camerini C, Brunor I: Peritonitis rates and CAPD results. in Peritoneal Dialysis: Proceedings of the 4ths International Course on Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by La Greca G, Ronco C, Feriani M, Chiaramonte S, Conz P, Milan, Wichtig Editore, 1991, p 223Google Scholar
  435. 434.
    Jindal KK, Hirsch DJ: Excellent technique survival on home peritoneal dialysis: results of a regional programme. Perit Dial Int 14: 324, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 435.
    Nolph KD: Technique survival in CAPD. Perit Dial Int 14: 322, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 436.
    Krediet RT, Koomen GR, Struijk DG, Van Olden RW, Inholz ALT, Boeschoten EN: Practical methods for assessing dialysis efficiency during peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S7, 1994Google Scholar
  438. 437.
    Harty JC, Boulton H, Curwell J, Heelis N, Uttley L, Venning MC, Gokal R: The normalized protein catabolic rate is a flawed marker of nutrition in CAPD patients. Kidney Int 45: 103, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. 438.
    Keshaviah PR, Nolph KD, Vanstone JC: The peak concentration hypothesis: a urea kinetic approach to comparing the adequacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int 9: 257, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 439.
    Sherman RA: The peak concentration hypothesis — a justification for inadequate therapy? Semin Dial 7: 318, 1994Google Scholar
  441. 440.
    Depner TA: Quantifying hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: examination of the peak concentration hypothesis. Semin Dial 7: 315, 1994Google Scholar
  442. 441.
    Ronco C, Bosch JP, Lew SQ, Feriani M, Chiaramonte S, Conz P, Brendolan A, La Greca G: Adequacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: comparison with other dialysis techniques. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S18, 1994Google Scholar
  443. 442.
    Tattersall JE, Doyle S. Greenwood, Farrington K: Maintaining adequacy in CAPD by individualizing the dialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9: 749, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 443.
    Harty JC, Boulton H, Uttley L, Venning MC, Gokal R: Limitations of modelling dialysis therapy. (Abstract) J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 516, 1994Google Scholar
  445. 444.
    Brunkhorst R, Wrender E, Krautzig S, Ehlerding G, Mahiout A, Koch KM: Clinical experience with home automated peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 46(Suppl 48): S25, 1994Google Scholar
  446. 445.
    Campbell S, Clarke P, Hawley C, Wigan M, Kerlin P, Butler J, Wall D: Sclerosing peritonitis: identification of diagnostic, clinical and radiological features. Am J Kidney Dis 24: 819, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 446.
    Diaz-Buxo JA: Is continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis good for five years and may be more? Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S172, 1993Google Scholar
  448. 447. Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: 1992 Report, Canadian Institution for Health Information, Don Mills (ON) 1994, March, p 210Google Scholar
  449. 448.
    Viglino G, Cancarini G, Catizone L, Cocchi R, De Vecchi A, Lupo A, Segoloni GP, Giangrande A: Ten years of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: analysis of patient and technique survival. Perit Dial Int 13(Suppl 2): S175, 1993Google Scholar
  450. 449.
    Heaton A, Rodger RSC, Sellars L, Goodship THJ, Fletcher K, Nikolakakis N, Ward MK, Wilkinson R, Kerr DNS: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis after the honeymoon: review of experience in Newcastle 1979–84. B Med J 293: 938, 1986Google Scholar
  451. 450.
    Mion C: Integration of peritoneal dialysis in a regional end stage renal disease programme: a French experience in Languedoc-Roussillon. in Peritoneal Dialysis, edited by Atkins RC, Thompson NM, Farrell PC, Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1980, p 395Google Scholar
  452. 451.
    Wing AJ: Survival on integrated therapies: what asumptions should we make? Am J Kidney Dis 4: 224, 1994Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles M. Mion
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NephrologyLapeyronie University HospitalMontpellier CédexFrance

Personalised recommendations