Advertisement

Hemodialysis Access Part B — Permanent

  • Charles E. Butler
  • Nicholas L. Tilney

Abstract

The introduction of extracorporeal dialysis of blood by Kolff et al. (1) in 1943 provided a means whereby patients with end stage renal failure could be sustained for prolonged periods by intermittent filtering of uremic toxins from the blood. Temporary access to the circulation by catheterization of distal arteries and veins using glass or metal cannulae was performed originally, with the used portions of the vessels ligated following each dialysis treatment. Chronic dialysis was not feasible until the introduction of the external arteriovenous shunt by Quinton, Dillard and Scribner in 1960 (2) and the endogenous fistula by Brescia, Cimino and colleagues in 1966 (3), approaches that afforded routine intermittent access to the circulation without sacrifice of the vessels after each treatment. The increased availability of synthetic vascular prostheses, especially expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), has allowed a greater procedural choice, particularly in chronic dialysis patients whose peripheral venous sites have been exhausted or whose native veins are inadequate for the creation of an endogenous fistula.

Keywords

Brachial Artery Arteriovenous Fistula Cephalic Vein Prosthetic Graft PTFE Graft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Graham WB: Historical aspects of hemodialysis. Transplant Proc 9: xlix, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quinton WE, Dillard DH, Scribner BH: Cannulation of blood vessels for prolonged hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 6: 104, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brescia MJ, Cimino JE, Appel K, Hurwich BJ: Chronic hemodialysis using venipuncture and a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. N Engl J Med 275: 1089, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jenkins AM, Buist TAS, Glover SD: Medium-term follow-up of forty autogenous vein and forty polytetrafluorethylene (Gortex) grafts for vascular access. Surgery 88: 667, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whittemore AD: Vascular access for hemodialysis. in Surgical Care of the Patient with Renal Failure, edited by Tilney NL, Lazarus JM, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1982, p 49Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tilney NL, Whittemore AD: Dialysis access in difficult patients. in Vascular Surgery, edited by Bell PRF, Tilney NL, London, Butterworths, 1984, p 175Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bossell JA, Abbott JA, Lim RC: A radial steal syndrome with arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med 75:387, 1971Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    May J, Tiller D, Johnson J, Stewart J, Sheil AG: Saphenous vein arteriovenous fistula in regular dialysis treatment. N Engl J Med 280: 770, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wedgwood KR, Wiggins PA, Guillou PJ: A prospective study of end-to-side vs side-to-side arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis. Br J Surg 71: 540, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rivers SP, Scher LA, Sheehan E, Lynn R, Veith FJ: Basilic vein transposition: an underused autologous alternative to prosthetic dialasis angioaccess. J Vasc Surg 18: 391, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gerardet RE, Hackett RE, Goodwin NJ, Friedman EA: Thirteen months’ experience with the saphenous vein graft arteriovenous fistula for maintenance hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 16: 285, 1970Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morgan AP, Dammin GJ, Lazarus JM: Failure modes in secondary vascular access for hemodialysis. ASAIO J 1: 44, 1978Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hammill FS, Johnson GG, Collins GM: A critical appraisal of the changing approaches to vascular access for chronic dialysis. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 9: 325, 1980Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Palder SB, Kirkman RL, Whittemore AD, Hakim RM, Lazarus JM, Tilney NL: Vascular access for hemodialysis. Ann Surg 202: 235, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Munda R, First MR, Alexander JW, Linneman CC Jr, Fidler JP, Kittur D: Polytetrafluoroethylene graft survival in hemodialysis. JAMA 249: 219, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salvatierra O Jr, Feduska NJ: Construction of the optimal tunnel for interposition arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas. Surgery 94: 508, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mandel SR, McDougal EG: Popliteal artery to saphenous vein vascular access for hemodialysis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 160: 358, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haimov M: Vascular access for hemodialysis — new modifications for the difficult patient. Surgery 92: 109, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosenthal JJ, Spigelman A, Gaspar MR, Mavius HJ: Problems with bovine heterografts for hemodialysis. Am J Surg 130: 182, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson JM, Kenoyer MR, Johnson KE, Potter DJ, Nickas GM, Williams T: The modified bovine heterograft in vascular access for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 183: 62, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hurt AV, Batello-Cruz M, Skipper BJ, Teaf SR, Sterling WA Jr: Bovine carotid artery heterograft versus polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Am J Surg 146: 844, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Naimov M, Jacobson NJ: Experience with modified bovine arterial heterograft in peripheral reconstruction and vascular access for hemodialysis. Ann Surg 180: 291, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mindich BP, Silverman MJ, Elguezabel A, Levowitz BS: Umbilical cord vein fistula for vascular access in hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 21: 273, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dardik H, Ibrahim IK, Dardik I: Arteriovenous fistulas constructed with modified human umbilical cord vein graft. Arch Surg 111: 60, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Surratt RS, Picus D, Hicks ME, Darcy MD, Kleinhoffer M, Jendrisak M: The importance of preoperative evaluation of the subclavian vein in dialysis access planning. Am J Roentgenol 156: 623, 1991Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cimochowski GE, Worley E, Rutherford WE, Sartain J, Blondin J, Harter H: Superiority of the internal jugular over the subclavian access for temporary dialysis. Nephron 54: 154, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Etheredge EE, Haid SD, Maeser MN, Sicard GA, Anderson CB: Salvage operations for malfunctioning polytetrafluoroethylene hemodialysis access grafts. Surgery 94: 464, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tellis VA, Kohlberg WI, Bhat DJ, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis. Ann Surg 189: 101, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sabanayagam P, Soricelli R, Schwartz A: Experience with 225 expanded PTFE arteriovenous fistulae for chronic maintenance hemodialysis. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Society for Artificial Organs, Geneva, Switzerland, Sept 29–Oct 1, 1979Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Selman SH, Rhodes RS, Anderson JM, DePalma RG, Clowes AW: Atheromatous changes in expanded polytetrafluorethylene grafts. Surgery 87: 630, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duncan H, Ferguson L, Faris I: Incidence of the radial steal syndrome in patients with Brescia fistula for hemodialysis: its clinical significance. J Vasc Surg 4: 144, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kinnaert P, Strugven J, Mathieu J, Vereerstraeten P, Toussaint C, van Geertruyden J: Intermittent claudication of the hand after creation of an arteriovenous fistula in the forearm. Am J Surg 139: 838, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schanzer H, Sklandany M, Haimov M: Treatment of angioaccess-induced ischemia by revascularization. Vasc Surg 16: 861, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anderson CB, Codd JR, Graff RA, Groce MA, Harter HR, Newton WT: Cardiac failure and upper extremity arteriovenous dialysis fistulas. Case reports and a review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 136: 292, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nsouli KA, Lazarus JM, Schoenbaum SC, Gottlieb MN, Lowrie EG, Shocair M: Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 139: 1255, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bhat DJ, Tellis VA, Kohlberg WI, Driscoll B, Veith FJ: Management of sepsis involving expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis access. Surgery 187: 445, 1980Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Malone JM, Moore WS, Campagna G, Bean B: Bacteremic infectability of vascular grafts: the influence of pseudointimal integrity and duration of graft function. Surgery 78: 211, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roon AJ, Malone JM, Moore WS, Bean B, Campagna G: Bacteremic infectability: a function of vascular graft material and design. J Surg Res 22: 489, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gifford RM: Management of tunnel infections of dialysis polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. J Vasc Surg 2: 85ft, 1985Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dobkin JF, Miller MH, Steigbigel NA: Septicemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Ann Intern Mid 88: 28, 1978Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    O’Brien TF: Infection in dialysis and transplant patients. in Surgical Care of the Patient with Renal Failure, edited by Tilney NL, Lazarus JM, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1982, p 67Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morgan AP, Knight DC, Tilney NL, Lazarus JM: Femoral triangle sepsis in dialysis patients. Ann Surg 191: 460, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Leonard A, Raij L, Shapiro FL: Bacterial endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients. Kidney Int 4: 407, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morgan AP, Lazarus JM: Vascular access for dialysis. Am J Surg 129: 432, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Najarian JS, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Howard RJ, Kjelistrand CM, Mauer SM, Kennedy W, Ramsay R, Barbosa J, Goetz FC: Kidney transplantation for the uremic diabetic patient. Surg Gynecol Obstet 144: 682, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. Butler
    • 1
  • Nicholas L. Tilney
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryBrigham & Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Transplant SurgeryBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations