Laser speckle is the name given to the random, high contrast, granular pattern observed when a diffusively reflecting object is illuminated with laser light. In the early days of lasers, the effect was regarded purely as a nuisance, but it was not long before scientists started to study speckle for its own sake (Dainty, 1984) and to develop practical applications of the phenomenon.


Speckle Pattern Holographic Interferometry Laser Speckle Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Speckle Interferometry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aizu, Y. and Asakura, T. (1991) Bio-speckle phenomena and their application to the evaluation of blood flow. Opt. Laser Technol., 23, 205–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archbold, E., Burch, J.M. and Ennos, A.E. (1970) Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography. Opt. Acta, 17, 883–98.Google Scholar
  3. Asakura, T. (1978) Surface roughness measurement, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.K. Erf), Academic Press, New York, pp. 11–49.Google Scholar
  4. Aubert, A.E., Welkenhuysen, L., Montold, J. et al. (1984) Laser method for recording displacement of the heart and the chest wall. J. Biomed. Eng., 6, 134–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brdicko, J., Olson, M.D. and Hazell, C.R. (1978) Theory for surface displacement and strain measurements by laser speckle interferometry. Opt. Acta, 25, 963–89.Google Scholar
  6. Briers, J.D. (1975) A note on the statistics of laser speckle patterns added to coherent and incoherent uniform background fields, and a possible application for the case of incoherent addition. Opt. Quant. Electron., 7, 422–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briers, J.D. (1993a) Surface roughness evaluation, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.S. Sirohi), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 373–426.Google Scholar
  8. Briers, J.D. (1993b) Speckle fluctuations and biomedical optics: implications and applications. Opt. Eng., 32, 277–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Briers, J.D. (1993c) Holographic, speckle and moiré techniques in optical metrology. Prog. Quant. Electr., 17, 167–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Briers, J.D. (1994) Laser speckle techniques in biology and medicine. Proc. SPIE, 2083, 238–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briers, J.D. and Fercher, A.F. (1982) Retinal blood-flow visualization by means of laser speckle photography. Inv. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 22, 255–9.Google Scholar
  12. Briers, J.D. and Webster, S. (1996) Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a non-scanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow, J. Biomed Opt., 1, 174–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burch, J.M. and Tokarski, J.M.J. (1968) Production of multiple beam fringes from photographic scatterers. Opt. Acta, 15, 101–11.Google Scholar
  14. Dainty, J.C. (ed.) (1984) Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd edn, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  15. Dalmases, F., Cibrián, R., Buendía, M. et al. (1988) Speckle correlation technique to determine roughness in the dermatologic interval. Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 913–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dudderar, T.D., Gilbert, J.A., Boehnlein, A.J. and Schultz, M.E. (1983) Application of fiber optics to speckle metrology — a feasibility study. Exp. Mech., 23, 289–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ennos, A.E. (1975) Speckle interferometry, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (ed. J.C. Dainty), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 203–53.Google Scholar
  18. Gåsvik, K.J. (1987) Optical Metrology, John Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  19. Goodman, J.W. (1975) Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (ed. J.C. Dainty), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 9–75.Google Scholar
  20. Gregory, D.A. (1978) Topological speckle and structural inspection, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.K. Erf), Academic Press, New York, pp. 183–223.Google Scholar
  21. Hoyer, H.E. (1990) Verformungsmessungen am Femur mit der Speckle-Interferometrie. Z. Orthop. Ihre Grenzgeb., 128, 668–74.Google Scholar
  22. Hung, Y.Y. (1978) Displacement and strain measurement, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.K. Erf), Academic Press, New York, pp. 51–71.Google Scholar
  23. Hung, Y.Y. (1982) Shearography: a new optical method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing. Opt. Eng., 21, 391–5.Google Scholar
  24. Hung, Y.Y. and Taylor, C.E. (1973) Speckle-shearing interferometric camera. A tool for measurement of derivatives of surface-displacement. Proc. SPIE, 41, 169–75.Google Scholar
  25. Huntley, J.M. (1989) Speckle photography fringe analysis: assessment of current algorithms. Appl. Opt., 28, 4316–22.Google Scholar
  26. Kasprzak, H. and Podbielska, H. (1994) Speckle photography in biomechanical testing. Proc. SPIE, 2083, 268–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kasprzak, H., Podbielska, H. and Pennig, D. (1991) Speckle photography for investigation of bones supported by different fixing devices. Proc. SPIE, 1429, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kasprzak, H., Podbielska, H., von Bally, G. and Fechner, G. (1993) Biomechanical investigation of the hyoid bone using speckle interferometry. Int. J. Legal Med., 106, 132–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaufmann, G.H. (1993) Automatic fringe analysis procedures in speckle metrology, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.S. Sirohi), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 427–72.Google Scholar
  30. Leendertz, J.A. (1970) Interferometric displacement measurement on scattering surfaces utilising speckle effects. J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.), 3, 214–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leendertz, J.A. and Butters, J.N. (1973) An image-shearing speckle pattern interferometer for measuring bending moments. J. Phys. E. (Sci. Instrum.), 6, 1107–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leith, E., Chen, H., Chen, Y. et al. (1991) Electronic holography and speckle methods for imaging through tissue using femtosecond gated pulses. Appl. Opt., 30, 4204–10.Google Scholar
  33. Løkberg, O.J. (1982) Speckle techniques for use in biology and medicine, in Optics in Biomedical Science (eds G. von Bally and P. Greguss), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 144–53.Google Scholar
  34. Markhvida, I.V., Tanin, L.V. and Dubovik, V.V. (1988) Research on epithelial tissue deformation by speckle photography (in Russian). Arkh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol., 94 (May), 73–5.Google Scholar
  35. Navarro, R., Méndez-Morales, J.A. and Santamaría, J. (1986) Optical quality of the eye lens surfaces from roughness and diffusion measurements. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, 3, 228–34.Google Scholar
  36. Pedretti, M. and Chiang, F.P. (1979) On the lower limit of one-beam laser speckle interferometry. Opt. Laser Technol., 11, 143–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramachandran, G. and Singh, M. (1989) Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac displacement patterns on the chest wall during the P, QRS and T-segments of the ECG by laser speckle interferometry. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 27, 525–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rastogi, P.K. (1993) Speckle methods in experimental mechanics, in Speckle Metrology (ed. R.S. Sirohi), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 41–98.Google Scholar
  39. Ruth, B. (1988) Non-contact blood flow determination using a laser speckle technique. Opt. Laser Technol., 20, 309–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tanaka, T., Riva, C. and Ben-Sira, I. (1974) Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels. Science, 186, 830–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tanin, L.V., Kumeisha, A.A., Markhvida, I.V. et al. (1994) Laser microhaematomyograph. Proc. SPIE, 2083, 280–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tiziani, H.J. (1972) A study of the use of laser speckle to measure small tilts of optically rough surfaces accurately. Opt. Commun., 5, 271–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tuchin, V.V., Ryabukho, V.P. and Ul’yanov, S.S. (1992) Speckle interferometry in the measurement of biotissue vibrations. Proc. SPIE, 1647, 125–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tuchin, V.V., Ampilogov, A.V., Bogoroditsky, A.G. et al. (1991) Laser speckle and optical fiber sensors for micromovements monitoring in biotissues. Proc. SPIE, 1429, 62–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Uozato, H., Itani, H., Matsuda, T. et al. (1982) Measurement of interior displacement of the human crystalline lens by using speckle pattern, in Optics in Biomedical Science (eds G. von Bally and P. Greguss), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 162–6.Google Scholar
  46. Vikram, C.S. and Vedam, K. (1979) Measurement of subspeckle-size changes by laser-speckle photography. Opt. Lett., 4, 406–7.Google Scholar
  47. Vogel, A. (1986) Comparison of two sensitive speckle methods applied to the measurement of tooth deformation. Optik, 72, 95–101.Google Scholar
  48. Yamaguchi, I. (1981) A laser-speckle strain gauge. J. Phys. E (Sci. Instrum.), 14, 1270–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yamaguchi, I. (1988) Advances in the laser-speckle strain gauge. Opt. Eng., 27, 214–18.Google Scholar
  50. Zheng, B., Pleass, C.M. and Ih, C.S. (1994) Feature information extraction from dynamic biospeckle. Appl. Opt., 33, 231–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zimnyakov, D.A., Tuchin, V.V. and Utts, S.R. (1994) A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin. Opt. Spectrosc., 76, 747–53 and 838–44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Briers

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations