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Abstract

Argument: A subject is an object that actualizes in an action. The self is a preliminary phase in a subject that corresponds with choice. When this phase actualizes in a behavior directed to a goal, the subject is in a basic (purposeful) intentional state. Awareness of the goal of a purposeful action requires a self and an intentional ideation. An object is selected out of a context or potential of unactualized choices. A self that is conscious of the choice implicit in the selection of a goal is in a volitional state. The progression from simple (purposeful) to complex (conscious) intentions to volitions (choices) involves a growth of perceptual awareness realized in action.

Keywords

Intentional Action Intentional State External Object Intentional Relation Body Schema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    J. Searle, Intentionality (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983), distinguishes the (propositional) content of a concept from an object. I take the object (e.g., speech) to be a later stage in the derivation of a concept (mental sentence or proposition). A concept and an object, or statement, are segments in a common process.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Gallagher, “Body Image and Body Schema: A Conceptual Clarification,” Journal of Mind and Behavior (1986): 541–554.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, Life of the Mind, on memory, 335; Brown, Self and Process, 127–146, on incrementation and duration.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See also Self and Process, 113–126; Life of the Mind, 316–321.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wittgenstein argued that the description of an intention is a description of an intended action, so that intention and intentional action are not logically distinct events. Moreover, the argument that an intention is not an entity like an image or a thought is consistent with the intention being in the relation between such entities; see N. Malcolm, Wittgenstein: A Religious Point of View (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Davidson, Actions and Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), 46.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Piaget, The Mechanisms of Perception (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969).Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    J. Searle, Intentionality.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    In this respect, the inability to perform a morally reprehensible act is a weak example of free will, since inhibitions (values) overpower choice. See P. van Inwagen, “When Is the Will Free?” in Philosophical Perspectives vol. 3, ed. J. Tomberlin (Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview, 1989).Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    For Hume, reason determines what is true and what is false but is dumb on the question of what to do: G. Watson, “Free Agency,” in Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

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