This book is not so much an argument for the positions taken on the topics of its theme as an exploration of what those positions would be given the theme that it takes. The approach differs from the usual pick and choose applications of neuropsychological data to philosophical issues which insert clinical symptoms into philosophical arguments simply to illustrate or reinforce their claims. A symptom or deficit is snatched from its context as a fragment of defective behavior and used to strengthen an argument in which it has no authentic share. This is a fraudulent use of the clinical material.
KeywordsMoral Responsibility Material World Philosophical Argument Causal Theory Mental Causation
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- 2.J. Brown, Life of the Mind (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988); J. Brown. Self and Process (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991).Google Scholar
- 3.After A. N. Whitehead, Process and Reality (New York: Macmillan, 1929).Google Scholar
- 4.The connection between time and agency was most forcefully argued in H. Bergson, Time and Free Will, trans. F. L. Pogson (1889; reprint, London: Swan, Sonnenschein, 1923).Google Scholar
- 5.Self and Process, 171–173.Google Scholar
- 6.B. van Fraassen, “Discussion,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53(1993): 442.Google Scholar
- 7.Frankfurt’s witty discussion of de-liberation as the loss of liberty of the drives in the gaining of the autonomy of reason leads him to conclude, as do I, that “reason depends on will.” H. Frankfurt, The Importance of What We Care About (Cambridge: U.K. Cambridge University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
- 8.On this point, see R. Kane, Free Will and Values (Albany, SUNY Press, 1985).Google Scholar
- 9.J. Wilson, The Moral Sense (New York: Free Press, 1993).Google Scholar
- 10.The position is that free will exists but is incompatible with universal causation. Some philosophical arguments for this view can be found in P. Van Inwagen, An Essay on Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983). Van Inwagen bases his argument for freedom on the reality of moral responsibility. I would consider moral responsibility an outcome of a proof of the existence of free will, not an argument for it.Google Scholar
- 11.For example, David Bohm notes that an essential contribution of Niels Bohr to quantum theory was to bring the “ambiguity of meaning (which we ordinarily associate only with the mind) into a crucial role in the understanding of the behavior of matter.” David Bohm, “Soma-Significance: A New Notion of the Relationship between the Physical and the Mental,” Psychoscience 1 (1994):6–27. From a somewhat different perspective, Kane, Free Will and Values, has written that, paradoxically, compatibilist and deterministic accounts of behavior have grown in influence during the same period that support for determinism has eroded in the physical sciences.Google Scholar