The Communication Paradox and Possible Solutions

Towards a Radical Empiricism
  • Karl Grammer
  • Valentina Filova
  • Martin Fieder


In the history of both animal and human ethology the direct observation of unstaged interactions in a natural habitat plays a critical role for methodological and theoretical considerations. Even when ethologists think that they already know much about adaptations and the ways in which they interact with the environment, the principles which have been involved in the evolution of increasingly complex human behaviour are still not very well understood.


Oestrogen Level Movement Quality Male Stimulus Facial Action Code System Female Stimulus 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Grammer
    • 1
  • Valentina Filova
    • 2
  • Martin Fieder
    • 1
  1. 1.Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institute for Urban Ethology c/o Institute for Human Biology/University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute for Automation-Department for Pattern Recognition and Image ProcessingTechnical University ViennaViennaAustria

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