Monitoring Regeneration in Elite Swimmers

  • Sue L. Hooper
  • Laurel T. Mackinnon


Regeneration from the negative aspects of intense training is an important focus of the taper period prior to major competition. For nearly half a century, competitive swimmers have been attempting to optimise competitive performance by training close to the point of overtraining and then regenerating while the training load is tapered. Tapering is a regeneration technique during which the physiological and psychological stresses of daily training are gradually reduced prior to competition in order to maximise the difference between the positive and negative effects of training.


Mood State Muscle Soreness Training Load Swimming Force Monitoring Regeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berglund B, Safstrom H (1994) Psychological monitoring and modulation of training loads of world-class canoeists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:1036–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Costill DL, King DS, Thomas R, Hargreaves M (1985) Effects of reduced training on muscular power in swimmers. Physician Sportsmed 13:94–101Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Costill DL, Thomas R, Ropbergs RA, Pascoe A, Lambert C, Barr S, Fink WT (1991) Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cogan KD, Highlen PS, Petrie TA, Sherman WM, Simonsen J (1991) Psychological and physiological effects of controlled intensive training and diet on collegiate rowers. Int J Sports Psych 22:165–180Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flynn MG, Pizza FX, Boone JB, Andres FF, Michaud FA, Rodriguez-Zayas JR (1994) Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons. Int J Sports Med 15:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gibala MJ, MacDougall JD, Sale DG (1994) The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes. Int J Sports Med 15:492–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guttmann MC, Pollock ML, Foster C, Schmidt D (1984) Training stress in Olympic speed skaters: A psychological perspective. Physician Sportsmed 12:45–57Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Gordon RD, Bachmann AW (1993) Hormonal responses of elite swimmers to overtraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Howard A, Gordon RD, Bachmann AW (1995) Markers for monitoring overtraining and recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:106–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Wilson BD (1995) Biomechanical responses of elite swimmers to staleness and recovery. Aust J Sci Med Sport 27:10–14Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Hanrahan S (1997) Mood states as an indication of staleness and recovery. Int J Sport Psych 28:1–12Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Ginn EM (1998) Effects of three taper techniques on the performance, forces, and psychometric measures of competitive swimmers. Eur J Applied Physiol 78:258–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Howard, A Norepinephrine as a marker of recovery after intense training. (submitted)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Houmard JA (1991) Impact of reduced training on performance in endurance athletes. Sports Med 12:380–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Houmard JA, Scott BK, Justice CL, Chenier TC (1994) The effects of taper on performance in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:624–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johns RA, Houmard JA, Kobe RW, Hortobagyi T, Bruno NJ, Wells IM, Shinebarger, MH (1992) Effects of taper on swim power, stroke distance and performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24:1141–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lehmann M, Deickhuth HH, Gendrisch G, Lazar W, Thum M, Kaminski R, Aramendi JF, Peterke E, Wieland W, Keul J (1991) Taining-overtraining: A prospective experimental study with experienced middle-and long-distance runners. Int j Sport Med 12:444–452Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lehmann M, Baumgartl P, Wiesenack C et al. (1992) Training-overtraining: influence of a defined increase in training volume vs training intensity on performance, catecholamines and some metabolic parameters in experienced middle-and long-distance runners. Eur J Appl Physiol 64:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mackinnon LT, Hooper SL, Jones S, Gordon RD, Bachmann AW (1997) Hormonal, immunological and hematological responses to intensified training in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:1637–1645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martin DT, Scifres JC, Zimmerman SD, Wilkinson JG (1994) Effects of interval training and a taper on cycling performance and isokinetic leg strength. Int J Sports Med 15:485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) EDITS Manual for the Profile of Mood States. Educational and Industrial Testing Services, San Diego, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morgan WP (1994) Psychological components of effort sense. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:1071–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morgan WP, Brown DR, Raglin JS, O’Connor PJ, Ellickson KA (1987) Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. British J Sports Med 21:107–114Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mujika I, Busso T, Lacoste L, Barale F, Geyssany A, Chatard J-C (1996) Modeled responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Connor PJ, Morgan WP, Raglin JS (1991) Psychobiologic effects of 3d of increased training in female and male swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exerc 23:1055–1061Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prapavessis H, Berger B, Grove JR (1992) The relationship of training and pre-competitive mood states to swimming performance: an exploratory investigation. Aust J Sci Med Sport 24:12–17Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raglin JS, Morgan WP, O’Connor PJ (1991) Changes in mood states during training in female and male college swimmers. Int J Sports Med 12:585–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Goodman C, Morton AR (1995) The haematological, biochemical and immunological profile of athletes suffering from the overtraining syndrome. Eur J Appl Physiol 70:502–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rushall BS (1990) A tool for measuring stress tolerance in elite athletes. Appl Sport Psych 2:51–66Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shepley B, MacDougall JD, Cipriano N, Sutton JR, Tarnopolsky MA, Coates G (1992) Physiological effects of tapering in highly trained athletes. J Appl Physiol 72:706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Snyder AC, Kuipers H, Cheng B, Servais R, Fransen E (1995) Overtraining following intensified training with normal muscle glycogen. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1063–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Urhausen A, Gabriel H. Kindermann W (1995) Blood hormones as markers of training stress and overtraining. Sports Med 20:251–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Veldman DJ (1967) Fortran Programming for the Behavioural Sciences. New York: Rinehart and Winston pp 281–295Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Verde T, Thomas S, Shephard RJ (1992) Potential markers of heavy training in highly trained distance runners. British J Sports Med 26:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wittig AF, Houmard JA, Costill DL (1989) Psychological effects during reduced training in distance runners. Int J Sports Med 10:97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sue L. Hooper
    • 1
  • Laurel T. Mackinnon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Movement StudiesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations