Advertisement

Verbal Directions for Way-Finding: Space, Cognition, and Language

  • Helen Couclelis
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 32)

Abstract

This paper develops a tentative model of the cognitive mechanism underlying verbal direction-giving. It proposes the hypothesis that the cognitive map often assumed to be at the basis of that behavior, as well as the direction-giving discourse itself, are in fact generated by a common underlying mental model, which is itself structured by more primitive kinesthetic image-schemas and basic-level categories. Thus, theoretically, the paper synthesizes work on mental models from cognitive psychology with the perspective of experiential realism developed in cognitive linguistics. Empirically, it builds upon an analysis of transcripts from an informal experiment in direction-giving, rejoining similar studies by behavioral geographers and others. While distinct from image-based (in particular, cognitive-map based) as well as syntactic accounts of direction-giving, the proposed model offers an alternative that accommodates both these.

Keywords

Mental Model Route Direction Verbal Direction Route Planning Vehicle Navigation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbib, M. and Hesse, M. (1986) The Construction of Reality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Fauconnier, G. (1985). Mental Spaces, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. Frank, A. and Mark, D. (1991). Language issues for GIS. In Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications, (D. J. Maguire, M. F. Goodchild and D. W. Rhind, eds), London: Longman Books, 147–163.Google Scholar
  4. Freundschuh, S. M., Mark, D. M., Gopal, S., and H. Couclelis (1990). Verbal directions for way-finding: implications for navigation and geographic information and analysis systems. In Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Switzerlannd, v.l, 478–487.Google Scholar
  5. Golledge, R. G. (1992). Place recognition and wayfinding: making sense of space, Geoforum 21:2, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gopal, S., Klatzky, R., and Smith, T. R. (1989). NAVIGATOR: a psychologically based model of environmental learning through navigation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 9, 309–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gould, M. D. (1989). Considering individual cognitive ability in the provision of usable navigation assistance. In Proceedings, First Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference (VNIS’ 89), IEEE Vehicular Technology Section, Toronto, Canada, pp 443–447.Google Scholar
  8. Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts (P. Cole and J. Morgan, eds.), New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Herskovits, A. (1986). Language and Spatial Cognition: an Interdisciplinary Study of the Prepositions in English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Jackendoff, R. (1983). Semantics and Cognition, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Jackendoff, R. (1987). On beyond zebra: the relation of linguistic and visual information. Cognition 26, 89–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1988). How is meaning mentally represented? In Meaning and Mental Representations (U. Eco, M. Santambrogio and P. Voli, eds.), pp. 99–118, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Jonhson-Laird, P.N. (1989). Mental models. In Foundations of Cognitive Science (M. I. Posner, ed.) pp. 469–499. Boston, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Klein, W. (1982). Local deixis in route directions. In Speech, Place, and Action: Studies in Deixis and Related Topics, (R. J. Jarvella and W. Klein, eds.), pp. 161–182, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  16. Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Image and Mind, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kuipers, B. (1978). Modelling spatial knowledge. Cognitive Science 2, 129–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Lakoff, G., and Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. Ma, P. (1987). An algorithm to generate verbal instructions for vehicle navigation using a geographic database, The East Lake Geographer 22, 44–60.Google Scholar
  22. Mark, D. M. (1987). On giving and receiving directions: cartographic and cognitive issues. In Proceedings, 8th International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 562–571.Google Scholar
  23. Mark, D. M. (1989a). A conceptual model for vehicle navigation systems. In Proceedings, First Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference (VNIS’ 89), IEEE Vehicular Technology Section, Toronto, Canada, pp 448–453.Google Scholar
  24. Mark, D. M. (1989b). Languages of spatial relations: researchable questions and NCGIA research agenda. Report 89-2, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Santa Barbara, CA.Google Scholar
  25. McGranaghan, M., Mark, D. M., and Gould, M. D. (1987). Automated provision of navigation assistance to drivers. The American Cartographer 14,121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory: retrospect and current status, Canadian Journal of Psychology 45:3, 255–287.Google Scholar
  27. Pylyshyn, Z. (1986). Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science, Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Riesbeck, C. K. (1980). You can’t miss it: judging the clarity of directions, Cognitive Science 4, 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rosch, E. H. (1973). Natural categories. Cognitive Psychology 4, 328–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schank, R. and Abelson, R., (1977) Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: an Inquiry Into Human Knowledge Structures, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum assoc.MATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Streeter, L.A., and Vitello, D. (1986). A profile of drivers’ map reading abilities. Human Factors 28, 223–239.Google Scholar
  32. Streeter, L.A., Vitello, D., and Wonsiewicz, S.A. (1985). How to tell people where to go: comparing navigational aids. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 22, 549–562.Google Scholar
  33. Talmy, L. (1983). How language structures space. In Spatial Orientation: Theory, Research and Application (H. Pick and L. Acredolo, eds.), New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  34. Wunderlich, D. and Reinelt, R. (1982). How to get there from here. In Speech, Place, and Action: Studies in Deixis and Related Topics, (R. J. Jarvella and W. Klein, eds.), pp. 183–202, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Couclelis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations