Age and Monocular Enucleation as Potential Determinants of Light Damage in the Mouse Retina

  • Matthew M. LaVail
  • Naveen N. Kumar
  • Gregg M. Gorrin
  • Douglas Yasumura
  • Michael T. Matthes


Age and monocular enucleation have been examined as potential determinants of the susceptibility of the retina to light damage. BALB/c and C57BL/6J -c 2J mice were examined. BALB/c mice showed an initial increase in susceptibility to light damage between 8.5–10 weeks of age. This did not coincide with the time of sexual maturation, as reported previously for the rat. C57BL/6J-C2J mice, which are significantly more resistant to light damage than most other albino strains, showed no age-related change in susceptibility. Monocular enucleation had no effect on the susceptibility of the intact eye to light damage in either strain.


Sexual Maturation Potential Determinant Retinal Degeneration Constant Light Outer Nuclear Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Noell, W.K., Walker, V.S., Kang, B.S., and Berman, S., 1966, Retinal damage by light in rats, Invest. Ophthalmol. 5:450–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rapp, L.M. and Williams, T.P., 1980, A parametric study of retinal light damage in albino and pigmented rats, in: The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes, (T.P. Williams and B.N. Baker, eds.), pp. 135–159, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams, T.P. and Howell, W.L., 1983, Action spectrum of retinal light-damage in albino rats, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:285–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barbe, M.E. Tytell, M., Gower, DJ., and Welch, W.J., 1988, Hyperthermia protects against light damage in the rat retina, Science 241:1817–1819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ballowitz, L. and Dammrich, K., 1972, Retinaschaden bei ratten nach einer fototherapie, Z. Kinderheilk. 113:42–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’Steen, W.K., Anderson, K.V., and Shear, C.R., 1974, Photoreceptor degeneration in albino rats: dependency on age, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 13:334–339.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    LaVail, M.M., Gorrin, G.M., Repaci, M.A., and Yasumura, D., 1987, Light-induced retinal degeneration in albino mice and rats: strain and species differences, in: Degenerative Retinal Disorders: Clinical and Laboratory Investigations, (J.G. Hollyfield, R.E. Anderson, and M.M. LaVail, eds.), pp. 439–454, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Steen, W.K. and Donnelly, J.E., 1982, Chronologic analysis of variations in retinal damage in two strains of rats after short-term illumination, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:252–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LaVail, M.M., Gorrin, G.M., and Repaci, M.A., 1987, Strain differences in sensitivity to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in albino mice, Curr. Eye Res. 6:826–834.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borges, J.M., Edward, DP, and Tso, M.O., 1990, A comparative study of photic injury in four inbred strains of albino rats, Curr. Eye Res. 9:799–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    LaVail, M.M., Gorrin, G.M., Repaci, M.A., Thomas, L.A., and Ginsberg, H.M., 1987, Genetic regulation of light damage to photoreceptors, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28:1043–1048.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penn, J.S. and Anderson, R.E., 1987, Effect of light history on rod outer segment membrane composition in the rat, Exp. Eye Res. 44:767–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Penn, J.S., Naash, M.I., and Anderson, R.E., 1987, Effect of light history on retinal antioxidants and light damage susceptibility in the rat, Exp. Eye Res. 44:779–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tso, M.O.M., 1989, Experiments on visual cells by nature and man: in search of treatment for photoreceptor degeneration, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30:2430–2454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Organisciak, D.T. and Winkler, B.S., 1994, Retinal light damage: practical and theoretical considerations, in: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, (N. Osborne and G. Chader, eds.), pp. 1–29, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rapp, L.M., 1995, Retinal phototoxicity, in: Handbook of Neurotoxicology, (L.W. Chang, and R.S. Dyer, eds.), pp. 963–1003, Marcell Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Olafson, R.P. and O’Steen, W.K., 1976, Hormonal influences on photoreceptor damage: the pituitary gland and ovaries, Invest. Ophthalmol. 15:869–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Steen, W.K., 1980, Hormonal influences on retinal photodamage, in: The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes, (T.P. Williams, and B.N. Baker, eds.), pp. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fifkovä, E., 1972, Effect of light and visual deprivation on the retina, Exp. Neur. 35:450–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bush, R.A. and Williams, T.P., 1987, The effect of unilateral optic nerve section on retinal light damage in rats, Exp. Eye Res. 52:139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    LaVail, M.M. and Battelle, B.A., 1975, Influence of eye pigmentation and light deprivation on inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, Exp. Eye Res. 21:167–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Faktorovich, E.G., Steinberg, R.H., Yasumura, D., Matthes, M.T., and LaVail, M.M., 1992, Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat, J. Neurosci. 12:3554–3567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    LaVail, M.M., Matthes, M.T., Yasumura, D., and Steinberg, R.H., 1997, Variability in rate of cone degeneration in the retinal degeneration (rd/rd) mouse, Exp. Eye Res. 65:45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Michon, J.J., Li, Z.L., Shioura, N., Anderson, R.J., and Tso, M.O.M., 1991, A comparative study of methods of photoreceptor morphometry, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32:280–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Steen, W.K. and Kraeer, S.L., 1977, Effects of hypophysectomy, pituitary gland homogenates and transplants, and prolactin on photoreceptor destruction, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16:940–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    O’Steen, W.K., 1979, Hormonal and dim light effects in retinal photodamage, Photochem. Photobiol. 29:745–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Engle, E.T. and Rosasco, J., 1927, The age of the albino mouse at normal sexual maturity, Anal. Rec. 36:383–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bronson, F.H., Dagg, C.P., and Snell, G.D., 1966, Reproduction, in: Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, 2nd Ed., (E.L. Green, eds.), pp. 187–204, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    La Vail, M.M. and Sidman, R.L., 1974, C57BL/6J mice with inherited retinal degeneration, Arch. Ophthalmol. 91:394–400.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    La Vail, M.M., Sidman, R.L., and Gerhardt, C.O., 1975, Congenic strains of RCS rats with inherited retinal dystrophy, J. Hered. 242–244.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    La Vail, M.M., 1981, Assignment of retinal dystrophy (rdy) to linkage group IV of the rat, J. Hered. 72:294–296.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew M. LaVail
    • 1
  • Naveen N. Kumar
    • 1
  • Gregg M. Gorrin
    • 1
  • Douglas Yasumura
    • 1
  • Michael T. Matthes
    • 1
  1. 1.Beckman Vision CenterUniversity of California San FranciscoSan Francisco

Personalised recommendations