Recommendations for a Real-Time Systems Curriculum

  • Wolfgang A. Halang
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 167)


The objective of courses for the education of real-time computer and control systems engineers is to discuss topics and problems encountered when developing embedded systems for hard real-time environments. With the latter term, industrial, scientific, and military areas of application are meant which are characterized by strict time conditions that must not be violated under any circumstances. In contrast to this, commercial systems e.g., for automatic banking and airline reservations, only need to fulfill soft real-time requirements, i.e., although they are designed with the objective of fast response time, the user may expect the completion of his transactions within somewhat variable time frames.


Software Requirement Specification Control System Engineer Process Control Computer Airline Reservation Task Schedule Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    “The Programming Language Ada Reference Manual”, American National Standards Institute, Inc., ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A-1983, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 155, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York-Tokyo: Springer-Verlag 1983.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    R. Barnes, “A Working Definition Of The Proposed Extensions For PL/1 Real-Time Applications”, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 14,no. 10, pp. 77–99, October 1979.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. Baumann et al., “Functional Description of Operating Systems for Process Control Computers”, Richtlinie VDI/VDE 3554, Berlin-Cologne: Beuth-Verlag 1982.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    “DIN 66253: Programming Language PEARL”, German National Norm, Part 1 Basic PEARL, 1981, Part 2 Full PEARL, 1982, Part 3 Multiprocessor-PEARL, 1989, Berlin-Cologne: Beuth-Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    P. Elzer, “Ein Mechanismus zur Erstellung strukturierter Prozessautomatisierungsprpgramme”, Proceedings of the “Fachtagung Prozessrechner 1977”, Augsburg, March 1977, Informatik-Fachberichte 7, pp. 137–148, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag 1977.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    P. Göhner, “Integrated Computer Support for the Development and Project Management of Software/Hardware Systems”, Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Symposium on Computer Aided Design in Control and Engineering Systems, July/August 1985.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W.A. Halang, “On Real-Time Features Available in High-Level Languages and Yet to be Implemented”, Microprocessing and Microprogramming, Vol. 12,no. 2, pp. 79–87, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. Henn, “Feasible Processor Allocation in a Hard-Real-Time Environment”, Real-Time Systems, Vol. 1,no. 1, pp. 77–93, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    K.H. Kim (Ed.), “Advances in Real-Time Computer Systems”, Greenwich, CT: JAI-Press 1991.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    W. Kneis (Ed.), “Draft Standard on Industrial Real-Time Fortran”, International Purdue Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 16,no. 7, pp. 45–60, 1981.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. Lauber, “Prozessautomatisierung”, Vol. 1, 2nd edition, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York-London-Paris-Tokyo: Springer-Verlag 1989.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. Lauber, “Development Support Systems”, IEEE Computer, Vol. 15,no. 5, pp. 36–46, 1982.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. Lauber and E Lempp, “Integrated Development and Project Management Support System”, Proceedings of the 7th International Computer Software and Applications Conference COMPSAC’ 83, Chicago, November 1983.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C.L. Liu and J.W. Layland, “Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard-Real-Time Environment”, JACM Vol. 20, pp. 46–61,1973.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    “LTR Reference Manual”, Compagnie d’informatique militaire, spatiale et aeronautique, Velizy, October 1979.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    PEARL-Association, Brochure on the UH-RTOS System.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    H. Piche, “PORTOS-Nutzerhandbuch der PORTOS-Algorithmen — Antwortzeitgesteuerte Prozessorzuteilung”, Report GPP/442/88, GPP mbH, Oberhaching, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    K. Sandmayr, “A Comparison of Languages: CORAL, PASCAL, PEARL, Ada and ESL”, Computers in Industry, Vol. 2, pp. 123–132, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    J.A. Stankovic (Ed.), “Real-Time Computing Systems: The Next Generation”, COINS Technical Report 88-06, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    J.A. Stankovic and K. Ramamritham (Eds.), “Hard Real-Time Systems”, Tutorial, Washington: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J.A. Stankovic, “Misconceptions About Real-Time Computing”, IEEE Computer, Vol. 21,no. 10, pp. 10–19, October 1988.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. Stoyenko and E. Kligerman: “Real-Time Euclid: A Language for Reliable Real-Time System”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 12, 9, 941–949, September 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang A. Halang
    • 1
  1. 1.Rijksuniversiteit te GroningenVakgroep InformaticaAV GroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations