The Community


Currently the standard work week is 40 hours. With a commute time of 0.3 hours the average worker spends about 38% of his waking time involved in work. As automation advances, we have assumed the workweek will gradually shorten, and for the purpose of discussion of informational society, we have specified the average workweek would be 20 hours. As the workweek declines, most workers would want to organize their worktime to obtain longer periods of uninterrupted leisure. For example, if a worker concentrated his forecasted 20-hour workweek into two ten-hour shifts on consecutive days, such a worker would spend only about 19% of his waking time in work and would have a five day weekend each week. As the workweek is reduced, leisure will replace work as the primary focus of life for most people. The decline in the workweek raises the question of whether the supply of leisure activities will grow rapidly enough to match the increasing demand.


Leisure Activity Transportation System Central Business District Sport Program Plurality Vote 
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Notes and References 5

  1. 1.
    For example, see: Cunningham, H., 1980, Leisure in the Industrial Revolution, (Croom Helm: London) and Weaver, R. B., 1939, Amusements and Sports in American Life, (The University of Chicago Press: Chicago)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For example, see: Cheek, N. H. Jr. and W. R. Burch, Jr., 1976, The Social Organization of Leisure in Human Society, (Harper & Row: New York)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A reference for retirement villages in modern society is Osgood, N. J., 1982, Senior settlers, (Praeger: New York) and reference 1 contains descriptions of primitive societies which do little work.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyer, J.R., J.F. Kain and M Wohl, 1965, The Urban Transportation Problem, (Harvard University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meyer, J.R. & J.A. Gomez-Ibanez, 1981, Autos, Transit, and Cities (Harvard University Press: Cambridge)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    For one of the seminal works on the use of urban design to reduce crime, see Newman, Oscar, 1972, Defensible Space, (The Macmillan Company: New York)Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    From 1960 to 1989 the number of residential community associations has increased from 5000 to 130,000 and about 12% of the population may now live in a residential community association. Residential community associations are private associations which provide services and act as quasi local governments with respect to such matters as zoning in condo complexes and tract housing. The rapid growth of these organizations is due to the economics of large scale development of residential housing. For a discussion see: ACIR, 1989, Residential Community Associations: Private Governments in the Intergovernmental System A-112, Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, (ACIR: Washington)Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    For example, see: Newman, Oscar, 1980, Community of Interest, (Anchor Press/Doubleday: Garden City)Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    The model of choice between the household and the town is the model of Tiebout. See: Tiebout, Charles, 1956, A Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, Journal of Political Economy, 64, Oct, pp 137–160. Also see: Zodrow, G. R., 1983, Local Provision of Public Services: The Tiebout Model after Twenty-Five Year, (Academic Press: New York). To obtain perfect mobility Tiebout fourth assumption is “Restrictions due to employment opportunities are not considered. It may be assumed all persons are living on dividend income.” As informational society advances the substitution of communication for travel will enable households to consider a much wider range of alternative housing in relationship to work. Thus the fourth assumption would be approximately met.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Gans, Herbert J., 1967, The Levittowners, (Pantheon Books: New York)Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    One possible approach to creating more neighborhood oriented streets is to create private streets as has been done in St Louis. See reference 11 for a discussion.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Skinner, B., 1948, Walden Two, (Macmillan: New York)Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    The study of sports is a branch of biomechanics. Progress in biomechanics has lead to numerous models of sports behavior and simulation programs. See: Vaughan, C.L. (ed), 1989, Biomechanics of Sport (CRC press, Inc.: Boca Raton) or the Journal of Biomechanics and the International Journal of Sports Biomechanics In some cases software has been developed to aid the development of athletes. For example see: Persyn U., L. Tilborgh, D. Daley, V. Colman, D. Vijfvinkel and D. Verhetsel, 1986, Computerized Evaluation and Advice in Swimming, in Ungerechts B., K. Wilke and K. Reischle (ed), Swimming Science V, (Human Kinetics Books: Champaign) future advances should lead to a large number of software aids to developing athletes.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    For example, see: Gordon, Suzanne, 1976, Lonely in America, (Touchstone: New York)Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Computer assisted instruction is just now in its infancy. While 90% of schools had at least one computer by 1985 so far CAI has had a limited impact on instruction. For example see: Becker, Henry J., Using Computers for Instruction, 1987, BYTE, Feb, pp149–162. As advances are made in applying artificial intelligence to instruction, the impact of CAI will increase. For example, see: Self, John (ed), 1988, Artificial Intelligence and Human Learning: Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction, (Chapman and Hall: London). Also as the social nervous system evolves CAI will be available to all individuals throughout their lives.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    In the US most new towns have been the creation of entrepreneurs. Ambitious federal plans to create new communities started in 1970 were suspended in 1975. See: Burby, R.J. III and S. F. Weiss, 1976, New Communities U.S.A., (Lexington Books: Lexington)Google Scholar

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

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