Soil Chemical Processes


This chapter deals with a number of chemical concepts relevant to soil forming processes. After studying this chapter you will be familiar with chemical aspects of weathering of primary minerals, the nature of important crystalline and amorphous weathering products, cation exchange processes in relation to colloidal properties of clay, complexation of metals by organic ligands, and redox processes in soils.


Clay Mineral Soil Solution Rice Straw Primary Mineral Secondary Mineral 
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3.5. References

  1. Berner, R.A. and G.R. Holdren Jr., 1979. Mechanism of feldspar weathering. II. Observations of feldspars from soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43:1173–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  4. Brindley, G.W., and G. Brown, 1980. Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification. Mineralogical Society Monograph No. 5, Mineralogical Society, London. 495 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Cornell, R.M., and U. Schwertmann, 1996. The Iron Oxides. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, 573 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Fanning, D.S., and V.Z. Keramidas, 1977. Micas. In J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (eds). Minerals in Soil Environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 195–258.Google Scholar
  7. IRRI, 1963. International Rice Research Institute, Annual Report for the year 1963, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
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  9. Motomura, S, 1962. Effect of organic matter on the formation of ferrous iron in soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr 8: 20–29.Google Scholar
  10. Nordstrom. D.K. 1982. The effect of sulfate on aluminum concentrations in natural waters: some stability relations in the systems A12O3-SO3-H2O at 298K. Geoch. Cosmochim. Acta 46:681–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  19. Van Breemen, N., and R. Protz, 1988. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 68:449–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  21. Velbel, M.A., 1986. Influence of surface area, surface characteristics, and solution composition on feldspar weathering rates. In: Geochemical processes at mineral surfaces. J.A. Davis and K.F. Hayes. ACS Symposium series 323:615–634.Google Scholar
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General and further reading

  1. Bolt, G.H., and M.G.M. Bruggenwert, 1976. See above.Google Scholar
  2. Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman, 1976. Rock-forming minerals, Volume 3: Sheet silicates. Longman, London, 270 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Drever, J.L., 1982. The geochemistry of natural waters. Prentice Hall, New York, 388 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Duchaufour, P., 1982. Pedology — pedogenesis and classification. George Allen & Unwin, London, 448 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Garrels, R.M., and C.L. Christ, 1965. Solutions, minerals, and equilibria. Harper and Row, New York, 450 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Jenny, H., 1980. The soil resource. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 377 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Paul, E.A., and F.E. Clark, 1996. Soil microbiology and biochemistry, 2d Ed. AcademicGoogle Scholar
  8. Tan, K.H., Principles of Soil Chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York. 362 pp.Google Scholar

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

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