Advertisement

Responses of Leukemia Cells to Hematopoietic Growth Factors

Involvement of Autocrine Growth Mechanisms, Cytogenetic Abnormalities, and Defective Maturation Signaling
  • Ivo P. Touw
  • Fan Dong
Part of the Blood Cell Biochemistry book series (BLBI, volume 7)

Abstract

All blood cells produced throughout life descend from a small number of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, which, in adult man, reside predominantly in the bone marrow. The pluripotent stem cells generate progenitor cells committed to proliferate and mature toward the different functional end cells. The mature blood cells have a limited life span and need to be produced continuously. The hematopoietic system adapts in a highly dynamic fashion to changes in the requirements for different blood cells, for instance, during stages of infection or following sudden loss of blood. The rapid and variable needs for the various blood cell types demand a tight and complex control mechanism that finely regulates renewal, commitment, proliferation, maturation, and survival of hematopoietic cells. The hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) play a central role in these processes (Clark and Kamen, 1987; Metcalf, 1989).

Keywords

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Stem Cell Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins, B., Leutz, A., and Graf, T., 1984, Autocrine growth induced by src-related protooncogenes in transformed chicken myeloid cells, Cell 39: 439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amselem, S., Duquesnoy, P., Attree, O., Novelli, G., Bousnina, S., Postel-Vinay, M. C., and Goossens, M., 1989, Laron dwarfism and mutations of the growth hormone-receptor gene, N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 989–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amselem, S., Sobrier, M. L., Duquesnoy, P., Rappaport, R., and Postel-Vinay, M. C., 1991, Recurrent nonsense mutations in the growth hormone receptor from patients with Laron dwarfism, J. Clin. Invest. 87: 1098–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartley, T. D., Bogenberger, J., Hunt, P., Li, Y. S., Lu, H. S., Martin, F., Chang, M. S., Samal, B., Nichol, J. L., Swift, S., Johnson, M. J., Hsu, R. Y., Parker, V. R, Suggs, S., Skrine, J. D., Merewether, L. A., Clogston, C., Hsu, E., Hokom, M. M., Hornkohi, A., Choi, E., Pangelinan, M., Sun, Y., Mar, V., McNinch, J., Simonet, L., Jacobsen, F., Xie, C., Shutter, J., Chute, H., Basu, R., Selander, L., Trollinger, D., Sieu, L., Padilla, D., Trail, G., Elliott, G., Izumi, R., Covey, T., Crouse, J., Garcia, A., Xu, W., Castillo, J. D., Biron, J., Cole, S., Hu, M. C. T., Pacifici, R., Pouting, I.. Saris, C., Wen, D., Yung, Y. P., Lin, H., and Bosselman, R. A.,1994, Identification and cloning of a megakaryocyte growth and development factor that is a ligand for the cytokine receptor Mpl, Cell 77: 1117–1124.Google Scholar
  5. Bashey, A., Healy, L., and Marshall, C. J., 1994, Proliferative but not nonproliferative responses to granulocyte colony stimulating factor are associated with rapid activation of the p21“’/MAP kinase signalling pathway, Blood 83: 949–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazan, J. F., 1990, Structural design and molecular evolution of a cytokine receptor superfamily, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 6934–6938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, M. A., Guevara-Aguirre, J., Rosenbloom, A. L., Rosenfeld, R. G., and Francke, U., 1992, Mutation creating a new splice site in the growth hormone receptor genes of 37 Ecuadorean patients with Laron syndrome, Hum. Mutat. 1: 24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradbury, D., Rogers, S., Kozlowski, R., Bowen, G., Reilly, I. A. G., and Russell, N. H., 1990, Interleukin-1 is one factor which regulates the autocrine production of GM-CSF by the blasts of acute myeloblastic leukemia, Br..1. Haemaiol. 76: 488–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradbury, D., Rogers, S., Reilly, I. A., Kozlowski, R., Russel, N. H., 1992, Role of autocrine and paracrine production of granulocyte—macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-1 beta in the autonomous growth of acute myeloblastic leukaemia cells: Studies using purified CD34-positive cells, Leukemia 6: 562–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Budel, L. M., Delwel, R., van Buitenen, C., Hoogerbrugge, H., and Löwenberg, B., 1993, Effects of Kit Ligand on acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro: Effects of combinations with other cytokines, Leukemia 7: 426–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cantley, L. C., Auger, K. R., Carpenter, C., Duckworth, B., Graziani, A., Kapeller, R., and Soltoff, S., 1991, Oncogenes and signal transduction, Cell 64: 281–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castaigne, S., Chomienne, C., Daniel, M. T., Ballerini, R, Berger, R., Fenaux, R, and Degos, L., 1990, All transretinoic acid as a differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia: I. Clinical results, Blood 76: 1704 1709.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, S. C., and Kamen, R., 1987, The human colony stimulating factors, Science 236: 1229–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daenen, S., Vellenga, E., Van Dobbenburgh, O. A., and Halie, M. R., 1986, Retinoic acid as antileukemic therapy in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia and Aspergillus pneumonia, Blood 67: 559–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dale, D. C., Davis, M., and Vincent, M. E., 1994, Use of filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in severe chronic neutropenia, in: Filgrastin in Clinical Practice ( G. Morstyn and T. M. Dexter, eds.), pp. 83–101, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Damen, J. E., Liu, L., Cutler, R. L., and Krystal, G., 1993, Erythropoietin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of the Shc and its association with Grb2 and a 145-Kd tyrosine phosphorylated protein, Blood 82:2296–2303.Google Scholar
  17. D’ Andrea, R., Rayner, J., Moretti, P., Lopez, A., Goodall, G. J., Gonda, T. J., and Vadas, M., 1994, A mutation of the common receptor subunit for interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-5 that leads to ligand independence and tumorigenicity, Blood 83: 2802–2808.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, I., and Morstyn, G., 1992, Clinical uses of growth factors, in Balliere’s Clinical Hematology, Vol. 5, no. 3, Growth Factors in Haemopoiesis ( B. I. Lord and T. M. Dexter, eds.), pp. 753–786, Balliere Tindal, London.Google Scholar
  19. De la Chapelle, A., Träskelin, A. L., and Juvonen, E., 1993, Truncated erythropoietin receptor causes dominantly inherited benign human erythrocytosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90: 4495–4499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delwel, H. R., Salem, M., Dorssers, L., Wagemaker, G., Clark, S. C., and Löwenberg, B., 1988, Growth regulation of human acute myeloid leukemia: Effects of five recombinant hematopoietic factors in a serum-free culture system, Blood 72: 1944–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Deiwel, H. R., Van Buitenen, C., Salem, M., Bot, F., Gillis, S., Kaushansky, K., Altrock, B., and Löwenberg, B., 1989, Interleukin-1 stimulates proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells by induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor release. Blood 74: 586–593.Google Scholar
  22. Delwel, H. R., Schipper, P., Van Buitenen, C., Van Agthoven, T., Touw, I., and Löwenberg, B., 1990, Comparative analysis of IL-1 regulated and spontaneous growth of acute myeloid leukemia in vitro, Bone Marrow Transplant. 6 (Suppl. 1): 22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. De Thé, H. Lavau, C., Marchio, A., de Chomienne, C., Degos, L., and Dejean, A., 1991, The PML-RARa fusion mRNA generated by the t(15;17) translocation in human acute promyelocytic leukemia encodes a functionally altered RAR, Cell 66: 675–684.Google Scholar
  24. Dong, F., Van Buitenen, C., Pouwels, K., Hoefsloot, L. H., Löwenberg, B., and Touw, I. P., 1993, Distinct cytoplasmic regions of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor involved in induction of proliferation and maturation, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13: 7774–7781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dong, F., Hoefsloot, L. H., Schelen, A. M., Broeders, L. C. A. M., Meijer, Y., Veerman, A. J. P., Touw, I. P., and Löwenberg, B., 1994, Identification of a nonsense mutation in the granulocyte—colony-stimulating factor receptor in severe congenital neutropenia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91: 4480–4484.Google Scholar
  26. Dong, F., Brynes, R. K., Tidow, N., Weite, K., Löwenberg, B., and Touw, I. P., 1995a, Mutations truncating the C-terminal maturation region of the G-CSF receptor in acute myeloid leukemia preceded by severe congenital neutropenia, N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 487–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dong, F., Van Paassen, M., Van Buitenen, C., Hoefsloot, L. H., Löwenberg, B., and Touw, I. P., 19956, A point mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) gene in a case of acute myeloid leukemia results in the overexpression of a novel G-CSF-R isoform, Blood 85: 902–911.Google Scholar
  28. Duquesnoy, P., Sobrier, M. L., Amselem, S., and Goossens, M., 1991, Defective membrane expression of human growth hormone (GH) receptor causes Laron-type GH insensitivity syndrome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 88:10272–10276.Google Scholar
  29. Elbaz, O., Budel, L. M., Hoogerbrugge, H., Touw, 1. P., Delwel, R., Mahmoud, L. A., and Löwenberg, B., 1991a, Tumor necrosis factor downregulates G-CSF receptor expression on human AML cells and granulocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 87: 838–841.Google Scholar
  30. Elbaz, O., Budel, L. M., Hoogerbrugge, H., Touw, I. R, Delwel, R., Mahmoud, L. A., and Löwenberg, B., 1991b, Tumor necrosis factor regulates the expression of GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors on human acute myeloid leukemia cells, Blood 77: 989–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ema, E., Kitano, K., Suda, T., Moroi, K., Ohta, M., Yoshida, M., Sakamoto, S., Eguchi, M., and Miura, Y., 1990, In vitro differentiation of leukemic cells to eosinophils in the presence of interleukin-5 in two cases of acute myeloid leukemia with the translocation (8;21)(g22;g22), Blood 75: 350–356.Google Scholar
  32. Estey, E., Thall, P. F., Kantarjian, H., O’Brien, S., Koller, C. A., Beran, M., Gutterman, J., Deisseroth, A., and Keating, A., 1992, Treatment of newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia with granulocyte—macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) before and during continuous infusion of high-dose Ara-C and daunorubricin: Comparison to patients treated without GM-CSF, Blood 79: 2246–2255.Google Scholar
  33. Fialkow, R J., Jacobson, R. J., and Papayannopoulou, T., 1977, Chronic myelocytic leukemia: Clonal origin in a stem cell common to granulocyte, erythrocyte, platelet, and monocyte/macrophage, Am. J. Med. 63:125–130.Google Scholar
  34. Flockiger, A. C., Rossi, J. F., Bussel, A., Bryon, P., Banchereau, J., and Defrance, T., 1992, Responsiveness of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells activated via surface Igs or CD40 to B-cell tropic factors, Blood 80: 3173–3181.Google Scholar
  35. French—American—British Cooperative Group, 1985, Proposed revised criteria for the classification of acute myeloid leukemia, Ann. Intern. Med. 103: 620–625.Google Scholar
  36. Fu, X.-Y.,1992, A transcription factor with SH2 and SH3 domains is directly activated by an interferon a-induced cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase(s), Cell 70: 323–335.Google Scholar
  37. Fukunaga, R., Ishizaka-Ikeda, E., Seto, Y., and Nagata, S., 1990a, Expression cloning of a receptor for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Cell 61: 341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fukunaga, R., Seto, Y., Mizushima, S., and Nagata, S., 1990b, Three different mRNAs encoding human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 8702–8706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fukunaga, R., Ishizaka-Ikeda, E., Pan, C.-X., Seto, Y., and Nagata, S., 1991, Functional domains of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, EMBO J. 10: 2855–2865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fukunaga, R., Ishizaka-Ikeda, E., and Nagata, S., 1993, Growth and differentiation signals mediated by different regions in the cytoplasmic domain of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, Cell 74: 1079–1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gillio, A. P., and Gabrilove, J. L., 1993, Cytokine treatment of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, Blood 81: 1669–1674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gilman, P. A., Jackson, D. P., and Guild, H. G., 1970, Congenital agranulocytosis: Prolonged survival and terminal acute leukemia, Blood 36: 576–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Graf, T., Weizsaecker, F. V., Grieser, S., Coll, J., Stehelin, D., Patschinsky, T., Bister, K., Bechade, C., Calothy, G., and Leutz, A., 1986, V-mil induces autocrine growth and enhanced tumorigenecity in m-myc transformed avian macrophages, Cell 45: 357–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greer, P., Maltby. V., Rossant, J., Bernstein, A., and Pawson, T., 1990, Myeloid expression of the human c-fps/fes proto-oncogene in transgenic mice, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10: 2521–2527.Google Scholar
  45. Griffin, J. D., and Löwenberg, B., 1986, Clonogenic cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia, Blood 68: 1185–1195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Grimaldi, J. C., and Meeker, T. C., 1989, The t(5;14) chromosomal translocation in a case of acute lymphocytic leukemia joins the interleukin-3 gene to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, Blood 73: 2081–2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hunter, A. E., Rogers, S. Y., Roberts, I. A., Barrett, A. J., and Russell, N., 1993, Autonomous growth of blast cells is associated with reduced survival in acute myeloblastic leukemia, Blood 82: 899–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hunter, T., 1991, Cooperation between oncogenes, Cell 64: 249–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ihle, J. N., Witthuhn, B. A., Quelle, F. W., Yamamoto, K., Thierfelder, W. E., Kreider, B., Silvennoinen, O., 1994, Signalling by the cytokine receptor superfamily: JAKs and STATs, Trends Biochem. Sci. 19: 222–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaushansky, K., Lok, S., Holly, R. D., Boudy, V. C., Lin, N., Baily, M. C., Forstrom, J. W., Buddle, M. M., Oort, P. J., Hagen, F. S., Roth, G. J., Papayannopoulou, T., and Foster, D. C., 1994, Promotion of megakaryocyte progenitor expansion and differentiation by the c-Mpl ligand thrombopoietin, Nature 369: 568–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kawano, M., Hirano, T., Matsuda, T., Taga, T., Horii, Y., Iwato, K., Asaoku, H., Tang, B., Tanabe, O., Tanaka, H., Kuramoto, A., and Kishimoto, T., 1988, Autocrine generation and essential requirement of BSF-2/IL-6 for human multiple myelomas, Nature 332: 83–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kazizuka, A., Miller, W. H., Umesono, K., Warrell, R. P., Frankel, S. R., Murty, V. V. V. S., Dmitrovsky, E., and Evans, R. M., 1991, Chromosomal translocation t(15;17) in human acute promyelocytic leukemia fuses RARa with a novel putative transcription factor, PML, Cell 66: 663–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keller, J. R., Jacobsen, S. E. W., Dubois, C., Hestdal, K., and Ruscetti, F. W., 1992, Transforming growth factor-(3: A bidirectional regulator of hematopoietic cell growth, Int. J. Cell Cloning 10: 2–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kinoshita, T., Yokota, T., Arai, K., and Miyajima, A., 1995, Suppression of apoptotic death in hematopoietic cells by signalling through the IL-3/GM-CSF receptors, EMBO J. 14: 266–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kluin-Nelemans, H. C., Beverstock, G. C., Mollevanger, P, Wessels, H. W., Hoogendoorn, E., Willemze, R., and Falkenburg, J. H. F., 1994, Proliferation and cytogenetic analysis of hairy cell leukemia upon stimulation via the CD40 antigen, Blood 84: 3134–3141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kostmann, R., 1956, Infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Acta Paediatr. Scand. [Suppl.] 105: 1–78.Google Scholar
  57. Lapidot, T., Sirard, C., Vormoor, J., Murdoch, B., Hoang, T., Careres-Cortes, J., Minden, M., Paterson, B., Caligiuri, M. A., and Dick, J. E., 1994, A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation into SCID mice, Nature 367: 645–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lamer, A. C., David, M., Feldman, G. M., Igarashi, K.-I., Hackett, R. H., Webb, D. S. A., Sweitzer, S. M., Petricoin, E. F., III, and Finbloom, D. S., 1993, Tyrosine phosphorylation of DNA binding proteins by multiple cytokines, Science 261: 1730–1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Larsen, A., Davis, T., Curtis, B. M., Gimpel, S., Sims, J. E., Cosman, D., Park, L., Sorensen, E., March, C. J., and Smith, C. A., 1990, Expression cloning of a human granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor: A structural mosaic of hematopoietin receptor, immunoglobulin, and fibronectin domains, J. Exp. Med. 172: 1559–1570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liu, P., Tarlé, S. A., Hajra, A., Claxton, D. F., Marlton, P., Freedman, M., Siciliano, M. J., and Collins, F. S., 1993, Fusion between transcription factor CBF 3/PEBP2 3 and myosin heavy chain in acute myeloid leukemia, Science 261: 1041–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lok, S., Kaushansky, K., Holly, R. D., Kuijper, J. L., Lofton Day, C. E., Oort, P. J., Grant, F. J., Heipel, M. D., Burkhead, S. K., Kramer, J. M., Bell, L. A., Sprecher, C. A., Blumberg, H., Johnson, R., Prunkard, D., Ching, A. F. T., Mathewes, S. L., Bailey, M. C., Forstrom, J. W., Buddle, M. M., Osborn, S. G., Evans, S. J., Sheppard, P. 0., Presnell, S. R., O’Hara, P. J., Hagen, F. S., Roth, G. J., and Foster, D. C., 1994, Cloning and expression of murine thrombopoietin cDNA and stimulation of platelet production in vivo, Nature 369: 565–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Longmore, G. D., and Lodish, H. E, 1991, An activating mutation in the murine erythropoietin receptor induces erythroleukemia in mice: A cytokine receptor superfamily oncogene Cell 67: 1089–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lord, K. A., Abdollahi, A., Hoffman-Liebermann, B., and Liebermann, D. A., 1993, Proto-oncogenes of thefos/jun family of transcription factors are positive regulators of myeloid differentiation, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13: 841–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Löwenberg, B., Van Putten, W. L. J., Touw, I. P., Delwel, R., and Santini, V., 1993, Autonomous proliferation of leukemic cells in vitro as a determinant of prognosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 614–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Matsuguchi, T., Salgia, R., Hallek, M., Eder, M., Druker, B., Ernst, T. J., and Griffin, J. D., 1994, Shc phosphorylation in myeloid cells is regulated by granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and Steel factor and is constitutively increased by p210BCR/ABL, J. Biol. Chem. 269: 5016–5021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Matsumara, I., Kanakura, Y., Kato, T., Ikeda, H., Ishikawa, J., Horikawa, Y., Hashimoto, K., Moriyama, Y., Tsujimura, T., Nishiura, T., Miyazaki, H., and Matsuzawa, Y., 1995, Growth response of acute myeloblastic leukemia cells to recombinant human thrombopoietin, Blood 86: 703–709.Google Scholar
  67. Meeker, T. C., Hardy, D., Willman, C., Hogan, T., and Abrams, J., 1990, Activation of the interleukin-3 gene by chromosome translocation in acute lymphocytic leukemia with eosinophilia, Blood 76: 285–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Meng-er, H., Yu-chen, Y., Shu-rong, C., Jin-ren, C., Jia Chang, L., Lin, Z., Long-jun, G., and Zhen, Y., 1988, Use of all-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, Blood 72: 567–572.Google Scholar
  69. Metcalf, D., 1989, The molecular control of cell division, differentiation, commitment and maturation in haematopoietic cells, Nature 339: 27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Metz, T., Graf, T., and Leutz, A., 1991, Activation of cMGF expression is a critical step in avian myeloid leukemogenesis, EMBO J. 10: 837–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Miyajima, A., Mui, A. L. F., Ogorochi, T., and Sakamaki, K., 1993, Receptors for granulocyte—macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and interleukin-5, Blood 82: 1960–1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Miyauchi, J., Kelleher, C. A., Yang, Y., Wong, G. G., Clark, S. C., Minden, M. D., Minkin, S., and McCulloch, E. A., 1987, The effects of three recombinant growth factors, IL-3, GM-CSF, and G-CSF, on the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia maintained in short term suspension culture, Blood 70: 657–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Miyoshi, H., Shimizu, K., Kozu, T., Maseki, N., Kaneko, Y., and Ohki, M., 1991, t(8;21) breakpoints on chromosome 21 in acute myeloid leukemia are clustered within a limited region of a single gene, AMLI, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88: 10431–10434.Google Scholar
  74. Moberts, R., Hoogerbrugge, H., Van Agthoven, T., Löwenberg, B., and Touw, I., 1989, Proliferative response of highly purified B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in serum free culture to interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta, Leuk. Res. 13: 973–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morishita, K., Parganas, E., Matsugi, T., and ‘hie, J. N., 1992a, Expression of the Evi-I zinc finger gene in 32Dc13 myeloid cells blocks granulocytic differentiation in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Mol. Cell. Biol. 12: 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Morishita, K., Parganas, E., Willman, C. L., Whittaker, M. H., Drabkin, H., Oval, J., Taetle, R., and Ihle, J. N., 1992b, Activation of Evi-1 gene expression in human acute myelogenous leukemias by translocations spanning 300–400 kilobases on chromosome band 3q26, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89: 3937–3941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Murakami, M., Narazaki, M., Hibi, M., Yawata, H., Yasukawa, K., Hamaguchi, M., Taga, T., and Kishimoto, T., 1991, Critical cytoplasmic region of the interleukin 6 signal transducer gp130 is conserved in the cytokine receptor family, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88: 11349–11353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Murohashi, I., Tonda, S., Suzuki, T., Nazata, K., Yamashita, Y., and Nara, N., 1989, Autocrine growth mechanisms of the progenitors of blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia, Blood 74: 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Noguchi, M., Yi, H., Rosenblatt, H. M., Filipovich, A. H., Adelstein, S., Modi, W. S., McBride, O. W., and Leonard, W. J., 1993, Interleukin-2 receptor T chain mutation results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in humans, Cell 73: 147–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oster, W., Cicco, N. A., Klein, H., Hirano, T., Kishimoto, T., Lindemann, A., Mertelsmann, R. H., and Herrmann, F., 1989, Participation of the cytokines interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1 beta secreted by acute myelogenous leukemia blasts in autocrine and paracrine growth control, J. Clin. Invest. 84: 451–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pebusque, M. J., Lafage, M., Lopez, M., and Mannoni, P., 1988, Preferential response of acute myeloid leukemias with translocations involving chromosome 17 to human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Blood 72: 257–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ravichandran, K. S., and Burakoff, S. J., 1994, The adapter protein Shc interacts with the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor upon IL-2 stimulation, J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1599–1602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reilly, I. A., Kozlowski, R., and Russell, N. H., 1989, Heterogeneous mechanisms of autocrine growth of AML blasts, Br. J. Haematol. 72: 363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosen, R. B., and Kang, S. J., 1979, Congenital agranulocytosis terminating in acute myelomonocytic leukemia, J. Pediatr. 94: 406–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Salem, M., Delwel, R., Touw, I., Mahmoud, L. A., and Löwenberg, B., 1990, Modulation of colony stimulating factor (CSF) dependent growth of acute myeloid leukemia by tumor necrosis factor, Leukemia 4: 37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Santini, V., Colombat, P., Delwel, R., van Gurp, R., Touw, I., and Löwenberg, B., 1991, Induction of granulocytic maturation in acute myeloid leukemia by G-CSF and retinoic acid, Leuk. Res. 5: 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sato, N., Sakamaki, K., Terada, N., Arai, K., and Miyajima, A., 1993, Signal transduction by the high-affinity GMCSF receptor: Two distinct cytoplasmic regions of the common 13 subunit responsible for different signaling, EMBO J. 12: 4181–4189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sawyers, C. L., Denny, C. T., and Witte, O. N., 1991, Leukemia and the disruption of normal hematopoiesis, Cell 64: 337–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Souyri, M., Vigon, I., Penciolelli, J.-F., Heard, J.-M., Tambourin, P., and Wendling, F., 1990, A putative truncated cytokine receptor gene transduced by the myeloproliferative leukemia virus immortalizes hematopoietic progenitors, Cell 63: 1137–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tian, S.-S., Lamb, P., Seidel, H. M., Stein, R. B., and Rosen, J., 1994, Rapid activation of the STAT3 transcription factor by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Blood 84: 1760–1764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Touw, I., Pouwels, K., Van Agthoven, T., Van Gurp, R., Budel, L., Hoogerbrugge, H., Deiwel, R., Goodwin, R., Namen, A., and Löwenberg, B., 1990, Interleukin-7 is a growth factor of precursor B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Blood 75: 2097–2101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Touw, I., Donath, J., Pouwels, K., Van Buitenen, C., Schipper, P., Santini, V., Hagemeijer, A., Löwenberg, B., and Delwel, R., 1991, Acute myeloid leukemias with chromosomal abnormalities involving the 21q22 region identified by their in vitro responsiveness to interleukin-5, Leukemia 5: 687–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang, S., Wang, Q., Crute, B. E., Melnikova, I. N., Keller, S. A., and Speck, N. A., 1993, Cloning and characterization of subunits of the T-cell receptor and murine leukemia virus enhancer core-binding factor, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13: 3324–3339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Warrell, R. P., Frankel, S. R., Miller, W. H., Scheinberg, D. A., Itri, L. M., Hittelman, W. N., Vyas, R., Andreeff, M., Tarufi, A., Jakubowski, A., Gabrilove, J., Gordon, M. S., and Dmitrovsky, E., 1991, Differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia with tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid), N. Engl. J. Med. 324: 1385–1393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wörmann, B., Gesner, T. G., Mufson, R. A., and LeBien, T. W., 1989, Proliferative effect of interleukin-3 on normal and leukemic human B cell precursors, Leukemia 3: 399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Young, D. C., and Griffin, J. D., 1986, Autocrine secretion of GM-CSF in acute myeloblastic leukemia, Blood 68: 1178–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivo P. Touw
    • 1
  • Fan Dong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HematologyDr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center and Erasmus UniversityRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations