A Growing Scientific Consensus on The Cell and Molecular Biology Mediating

Interactions with Environmental Electromagnetic Fields
  • W. Ross Adey


Over the past 15 years, epidemiological studies have raised concerns about possible health risks related to exposures to electromagnetic fields associated with electric power transmission, distribution and use; and to various radio and microwave field exposures in homes and schools, in the workplace, and in the environment.


Pineal Gland Pulse Magnetic Field Magnetic Field Exposure Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Djungarian Hamster 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adey WR (1981) Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Physiol. Rev. 61:435–514.Google Scholar
  2. Adey WR (1990) Joint actions of environmental nonionizing electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion. Environmental Health Perspectives 86:297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adey WR (1992) Extremely low frequency magnetic fields and promotion of cancer. Interaction Mechanisms of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems, B. Norden and C. Ramel, eds. Oxford University Press, pp 23–46.Google Scholar
  4. Adey WR (1993) Electromagnetics in biology and medicine. Modern Radio Science. H. Matsumoto. ed. Oxford University Press, pp 227–245.Google Scholar
  5. Adey WR, Lawrence AF (1984) Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems. New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bassett CAL, Mitchell SN, Gaston SR (1982) Pulsing electromagnetic field treatment in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses. JAMA 247:623–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bawin SM, Adey WR (1976) Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak electric fields oscillating at low frequency. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 73:1999–2003.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Bawin SM, Kaczmarek LK, Adey WR (1975) Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 247:74–80.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bawin SM, Satmary WM, Adey WR (1994) Nitric oxide modulates rhythmic slow activity in rat hippocampal slices. Newo Report 5:1869–1872.Google Scholar
  10. Berridge MJ (1987) Inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol: two interacting second messengers. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56:159–193.Google Scholar
  11. Bignami M, Rosa S, Falcone G, Tato F, Katoh F, Yamasaki H (1988) Specific viral oncogenes cause differential effects in cell-to-cell communication, relevant to suppression of the transformed phenotype by normal cells. Molec. Carcin. 191:67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackman CF (1994) Effect of electrical and magnetic fields on the nervous system. The Vulnerable Brain and Environmental Risks, vol 3: Toxins in Air and Water. RL Isaacson and KF Jensen eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp 341–355.Google Scholar
  13. Blackman CF, Elder JA, Weil CM, Benane SG, Eichinger DC, House DE (1979) Induction of calcium ion flux from brain tissue by radio frequency radiation: effects of modulation frequency and field strength, Radio Sci. 14:93–98.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blackman CF, Benane SG, House DE, Joines WT (1985a) Effects of ELF (1–120 Hz) and modulated (50 Hz) RF fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue, in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 6:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blackman CF. Benane SG, Rabinowitz JR, House DE (1985b) A role for the magnetic field in the radiation-induced efflux from brain tissue, in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 6:327–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackman CF. Blanchard JP, Benane SG, House DE(1994) Empirical test of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with PC-12 cells. Bioelectromagnetics 15:239–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blanchard JP. Blackman CF (1994) Clarification and Application of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with biological systems. Bioelectromagnetics 15:217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Byus CV, Lundak RL, Fletcher RM, Adey WR (1984) Alterations in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields. Bioelectromagnetics 5:34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byus CV, Pieper SE, Adey WR (1987) The effects of low-energy 60 Hz environmental electromagnetic fields upon the growth-related enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. Carcinogenesis 8:1385–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Byus CV, Kartun K, Pieper S, Adey WR (1988) Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy modulated microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters. Cancer Res. 48:4222–4226.Google Scholar
  21. Byus CV (1994) Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly-growing cultured RAW-264 cells by extracellular putrescine. Biochem J., in press.Google Scholar
  22. Cain CD, Luben RA (1987) Pulsed EMF effects on PTH stimulated cAMP accumulation and bone resorption in mouse calvariae. Interactions of Biological Systems with ELF, LE Anderson, BJ Kelman, RJ Weigel, eds. Richland, WA: Battelle Laboratories Press; Conference Publication No. 24. pp 269–278.Google Scholar
  23. Cain CD, Thomas DL, Adey WR (1993) 60 Hz magnetic field acts as co-promoter in focus formation of C3H10T1/2 cells. Carcinogenesis 14:955–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Castagna M, Takai Y, Kaibuchi K, Sano K, Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y (1982) Direct activation of calcium-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor promoting phorbol esters. J. Biol Chem. 257:7847–51.Google Scholar
  25. Conti P, Gigante GE, Alesse E, Cifone MG, Fieschi C, Reale M, Angeletti PU (1985a) A role for calcium in the effect of very low frequency electromagnetic field on the blastogenesis of human lymphocytes. FEBS Lett. 181:28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Conti P, Gigante GE, Cifone MG, Alesse E, Fieschi C, Angeletti PU (1985b) Effect of electromagnetic field on two calcium dependent biological systems, J. Bioelectr 4:227–236.Google Scholar
  27. Dutta SK, Subramoniam A, Ghosh B, Parshad R (1984) Microwave radiation-induced calcium efflux from brain tissue, in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 5:71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foster KR, Guy AW (1986) The microwave problem. Sci. Amer. 225(3):32–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foster KR, Pickard WF (1987) Microwaves: the risks of risk research. Nature London 330:531–532.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Frohlich H, ed. (1988) Biological Coherence and Response to External Stimuli. Heidelberg, Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Grundler W, Kaiser F, Keilmann F, Walleczek J (1992) Mechanics of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems. Naturwissenschaften 79:551–559.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Harkins TT, Grissom CB (1994) Magnetic field effects on B12 ethanolamine ammonia lyase: evidence of a radical mechanism. Science 263:958–960.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Hill SM, Blask DE (1988) Effects of the pineal hormone melatonin on the proliferation and morphological characteristics of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in culture. Cancer Res. 48:6121–6126.Google Scholar
  34. Kaiser F (1988) Theory of non-linear excitation. Biological Coherence and Response to External Stimuli, H. Frohlich, ed. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 25–48.Google Scholar
  35. Liboff AR (1992) The “cyclotron resonance” hypothesis: experimental evidence and theoretical constraints. Interaction Mechanisms of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems. B. Norden and C Ramel, eds. Oxford University Press, pp 130–147.Google Scholar
  36. Liburdy RP, Harland JD, Heffernan C, Seeley M, Dunham EE (1994) Inhibition of melatonin’s natural oncostatic action on MCF-7 cells: 60 Hz dose threshold determination. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 16th Annual Meeting. Copenhagen. Proceedings, p 51 (abstract).Google Scholar
  37. Lin-Liu S, Adey WR (1982) Low frequency amplitude-modulated microwave fields change calcium efflux rates from synaptosomes. Bioelectromagnetics 3:309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Litovitz TA, Krause D, Penafiel M. Elson EC. Mullins JM (1993) The role of coherence time in the effect of microwaves on ODC activity. Bioelectromagnetics 14:395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Loewenstein WR (1981) Junctional intercellular communication: the cell-to-cell communication channel. Physiol. Rev. 61:829–913.Google Scholar
  40. Luben RA (1989) Effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and DC) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems. Health Physics 61:15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luben RA, Cain CD (1984) Use of hormone receptor activities to investigate the membrane effects of low energy electromagnetic fields. Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems. WR Adey and AF Lawrence, eds. New York, Plenum Press, pp 23–34.Google Scholar
  42. Luben RA, Cain CD, Chen M-Y, Rosen DM, Adey WR (1982) Effects of electromagnetic stimuli on bone and bone cells, in vitro: inhibition of responses to parathyroid hormone by low-energy, low-frequency fields. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:4180–3.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Luben RA, Hyunh D, Weinshank RL, Smith LE, (1990) Molecular cloning of candidate sequences for the mouse osteoblast parathyroid hormone receptor. Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism, DV Cohn, FH Glorieux, TJ Martin, eds. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp 39–44.Google Scholar
  44. Luben RA, Morgan AP, Carlson A, Duong M (1994) One gauss 60 Hz magnetic fields modulate protein kinase activity by a mechanism similar to that of tumor promoting phorbol esters. Bioelectromagnetics Society 16th Annual Meeting, Copenhagen, Proceedings p 74.Google Scholar
  45. Lyle DB, Ayotte RD, Sheppard AR, Adey WR (1988) Suppression of T lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to 60 Hz sinusoidal electric fields. Bioelectromagnetics 9:303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lyle DB, Schechter P, Adey WR, Lundak RL (1983) Suppression of T lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated fields. Bioelectromagnetics 4:281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lyle DB, Wang X, Ayotte RD, Sheppard AR, Adey WR (1991) Calcium uptake by leukemic and normal T-lymphocytes exposed to low frequency magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 12:145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McBain CJ, Mayer ML (1994) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor structure and function. Phvsiol. Rev. 74:723–760.Google Scholar
  49. McLauchlan K (1992) Are environmental electromagnetic fields dangerous? Physics World pp 41–45, January.Google Scholar
  50. McLean JRN, Stuchly MA, Mitchel REJ, Wilkinson D, Yang H, Goddard M, Lccuyer DW, Schunk M, Callary E, Morrison D (1991) Cancer promotion in a mouse-skin model by a 60 Hz magnetic field: II. Tumor development and immune response. Bioelectromagnetics 12:273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miura M, Takayama K, Okada J (1993) Increase in nitric oxide and cyclic-GMP of rat cerebellum by radiofrequency burst-type electromagnetic field radiation. J. Physiol. London 461:513–524.Google Scholar
  52. Nishizuka Y (1983) Protein kinase C as a possible receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J. Biol. Chem. 258:11442–6.Google Scholar
  53. Nishizuka Y (1984) The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion. Nature London 308:693–698.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Phillips JL (1993) Effects of EM field exposure on gene transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. 51:381–386.Google Scholar
  55. Phillips JL. Haggren W. Thomas WT, Ishida-Jones T, Adey WR (1992) Magnetic field-induced changes in specific gene transcription. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1132:140–144.Google Scholar
  56. Pitot HC, Dragan YP (1991) Facts and theories concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. FASEB J. 5:2280–8.Google Scholar
  57. Reiter RJ (1992) Alterations of the circadian melatonin rhythm by the electromagnetic spectrum: a study in environmental toxicology. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 15:226–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schumann WO (1957) Uber elektrische Eigenschwindungen des Hohlraumes Erd-Luft-Ionosphare, erregt durch Blitzentladungen. Zeits. Angew. J. Phys. 9:373–378.MATHGoogle Scholar
  59. Semm P (1983) Neurobiological investigations on the magnetic sensitivity of the pineal gland in rodents and pigeons. Camp. Biol. Physiol. 159:619–625.Google Scholar
  60. Slaga TJ, Sivak A, Boutwell RK, eds. (1978) Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Carcinogenesis, Vol 2, New York, Raven Press.Google Scholar
  61. Steiner UK, Ulrich Th, (1989) Magnetic field effects in chemical kinetics and related phenomena. Chem. Rev. 89:51–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tabib A, Bachrach U (1994) Activation of the proto-oncogene c-myc and c-fos by c-ras: involvement of polyamines. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications 202:720–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tamarkin L, Pan forth D, Lichter A, Demoss E, Cohen M, Chabner B, Lippmann M (1982) Decreased nocturnal melatonin peak in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Science 216:1003–1005.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Terada H, Kitagawa K, Okamoto N, Watanabe S, Taki M, Saito M (1994) An analysis ofdose in tissue irradiated by near field of a circular loop antenna. IEICE Trans. Commun. E77-B: 754–761.Google Scholar
  65. Tjandrawinata RR, Hawel L, Byus C’V (1994) Regulation of putrescine export in lipopolysaccaride or IFN-gamma-activated murinc monocytic-leukemic RAW 264 cells. J. Immunol. 152:3039–3052.Google Scholar
  66. Walleczek J (1992) Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling. EASEB J. 6:3176–3185.Google Scholar
  67. Walleczek J (1994) Immune cell interactions with extremely low frequency magnetic fields: experimental verification and free radical mechanisms. On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems, AH Erey. ed. New York, RG Landes Company.Google Scholar
  68. Walleczek J, Liburdy RP (1990) Nonthermal 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field exposure enhances 45Ca2+ uptake in rat thymocytes: dependence on mitogen activation. FEBS Lett. 271:157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Walleczek J. Killoran PL, Adey WR (1994) Acute 60 Hz magnetic field effects on Ca+ influx in human Jurkat T-cells: strict dependence on cell state. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 16th Annual Meeting, Copenhagen, Proceedings p 76 (abstract).Google Scholar
  70. Weinstein IB (1988) The origins of human cancer: molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and their implications for cancer prevention and treatment. Cancer Res. 48:4135–43.Google Scholar
  71. Wilson BW, Anderson LE, Hilton DI, Phillips RD (1981) Chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields: effects on pineal functions in the rat. Bioelectromagnetics 2:371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilson BW, Anderson LE (1990) ELF electromagnetic-field effects on the pineal gland. Extremely Loal Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: the Question of Cancer, BW Wilson, RG Stevens, LE Anderson eds. Columbus, Ohio, Battelle Press, pp 159–186.Google Scholar
  73. Yamasaki H (1987) The role of cell-to-cell communication in tumor promotion. Nongenoto.xic Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis, TE Butterworth and TJ Slaga. eds. 25th Banbury Report. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.Google Scholar
  74. Yamasaki H (1991) Aberrant expression and function of gap junctions during carcinogenesis. Environ. Health Perspectives 93:191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yellon SM (1994) Acute 60 Hz magnetic field exposure effects on the melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland and circulation of the adult Djungarian hamster. J. Pineal Res. 16:136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Ross Adey
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University School of MedicineLoma Linda

Personalised recommendations