When something is encountered that is new, unexpected or potentially threatening, it acts like a fire alarm, alerting the animal or human to the potential problem and mobilising resources to deal with it. The result is a change in the general level of arousal or activation, which can range from high levels under stress and fear to low levels when the environment makes no demands at all (Figure 17).


Personal Control Life Change Daily Habit Adrenal System Mental Rehearsal 


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Further Reading

  1. Burns, R. (1988). Coping with Stress (Maskew Miller Longman: Cape Town)Google Scholar
  2. Dobson, C.B. (1983). Stress (Ridgewood NJ: Bogden & Son)Google Scholar
  3. Tanner, O. (1976). Stress (New York: Time-Life Books)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

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