Advertisement

Effects of Experience

Part of the Contemporary Topics in Entomology book series (COTE, volume 2)

Abstract

Variation in an insect’s response to a plant as a result of its previous experience is a widespread, and perhaps universal phenomenon among phytophagous insects. In some cases, the changes in host selection with experience are quite extreme, although they usually occur within the normal host range of the particular species. Several different mechanisms are involved in the changes, and at the physiological level these almost certainly overlap. The terminology is based on behavioral definitions, and comes primarily from vertebrate studies. It is not necessarily totally applicable to insects, but the parallels are important, and where possible the classical use of terms is maintained.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Associative Learning Artificial Diet Aristolochic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Habituation

  1. Jermy, T., Bernays, E.A. and Szentesi, A. 1982. The effect of repeated exposure to feeding deterrents on their acceptability to phytophagous insects. In Visser, J.H. and Minks, A.K. (eds.) Insect-Plant Relationships. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 25–30.Google Scholar
  2. Jermy, T., Horvath, J. and Szentesi, A. 1987. The role of habituation in food selection of lepidopterous larvae: the example of Mamestra brassicae. In Labeyrie, V., Fabres, G. and Lachaise, D. (eds.) Insects-Plants. Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 231–236.Google Scholar
  3. Szentesi, A. and Bernays, E.A. 1984. A study of behavioural habituation to a feeding deterrent in nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria. Physiol.Entomol. 9: 329–340.Google Scholar
  4. Usher, B.F., Bernays, E.A. and Barbehenn, R.V. 1988. Antifeedant tests with larvae of Pseudaletia unipuncta: variability of behavioral response. Entomologia Exp. Appl. 48: 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sensitization

  1. Barton Browne, L., Moorhouse, J.E. and Gerwen, A.C.M. van 1976. An excitatory state generated during feeding in the locust, Chortoicetes terminifera. J.Insect Physiol. 21: 1731–1735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernays, E.A. and Chapman, R.F. 1974. The regulation of food intake by acridids. In Barton Browne, L. (ed.) Experimental Analysis of Insect Behaviour. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 48–59.Google Scholar
  3. Dethier, V.G., Solomon, R.L. and Tumer, L.H. 1965. Sensory input and central excitation and inhibition in the blowfly. J.Comp.Physiol.Psychol. 60: 303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Associative Learning or Conditioning

  1. Bernays, E.A. and Raubenheimer, D. 1991. Dietary mixing in grasshoppers: changes in acceptability of different plant secondary compounds associated with low levels of dietary protein. J.Insect Behav. 4: 545–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernays, E.A. and Wrubel, R.P. 1985. Learning by grasshoppers: association of colour/light intensity with food. Physiol.Entomol. 10: 359–369.Google Scholar
  3. Blaney, W.M. and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1987. Experience: a modifier of neural and behavioural sensitivity. In Labeyrie, V., Fabres, G. and Lachaise, D. (eds.) Insects-Plants. Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 237–241.Google Scholar
  4. Jaenike, J. and Papaj, D. 1992. Behavioral plasticity and patterns of host use by insects. In Roitberg, B.D. and Isman, M.B. (eds.) Insect Chemical Ecology. An Evolutionary Approach. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 245–264.Google Scholar
  5. Papaj, D.R. 1986. Conditioning of leaf shape discrimination by chemical cues in the butterfly, Battus philenor. Anim.Behav. 34: 1281–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Papaj, D.R. and Prokopy, R.J. 1986. Phytochemical basis of learning in Rhagoletis pomonella and other herbivorous insects. J.Chem.Ecol. 12: 1125–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Simpson, S.J. and White, P.R. 1990. Associative learning and locust feeding: evidence for a “learned hunger” for protein. Anim.Behav. 40: 506–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stanton, M.L. 1984. Short-term learning and the searching accuracy of egg-laying butterflies. Anim.Behav. 32: 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Traynier, R.M.M. 1986. Visual learning in assays of sinigrin solution as an oviposition releaser for the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Entomologia Exp.Appl. 40: 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Food aversion learning

  1. Bernays, E.A. 1992. Food aversion learning. In Lewis, A.C. and Papaj, D. (eds.) Insect Learning. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  2. Bernays, E.A. and Lee, J.C. 1988. Food aversion learning in the polyphagous grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Physiol. Entomol. 13: 131–137.Google Scholar
  3. Bernays, E.A. and Raubenheimer, D. 1991. Dietary mixing in grasshoppers: changes in acceptability of different plant secondary compounds associated with low levels of dietary protein. J.Insect Behav. 4: 545–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaney, W.M. and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1985. Food selection by locusts: the role of learning in rejection behaviour. Entomologia Exp.Appl. 39: 273–278.Google Scholar
  5. Bright, K.L. and Bernays, E.A. Distinctive flavors influence mixing of nutritionally identical food by grasshoppers. Chem.Senses 16: 329–336.Google Scholar
  6. Champagne, D.E. and Bernays, E.A. 1991. Phytosterol unsuitability as a factor mediating food aversion learning in the grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Physiol. Entomol. 16: 391–400.Google Scholar
  7. Dethier, V.G. 1980. Food aversion learning in two polyphagous caterpillars, Diacrisia virginica and Estigmene congrua. Physiol.Entomol. 5: 321–325.Google Scholar
  8. Lee, J.C. and Bernays, E.A. 1990. Food tastes and toxic effects: associative learning by the polyphagous grasshopper Schistocerca americana. Anim. Behav. 39: 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Induction of preference

  1. Blaney, W.M and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1987. Experience, a modifier of neural and behavioural sensitivity. In Labeyrie, V., Fabres, G. and Lachaise, D. (eds.) Insects Plants. Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 237–241.Google Scholar
  2. De Boer, G. and Hanson, F. 1984. Food plant selection and induction of feeding preferences among host and non-host plants in larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Entomologia Exp.Appl. 35: 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hanson, F.E. 1976. Comparative studies on induction of food choice preferences in lepidopterous larvae. Symp.Biol.Hung. 16: 71–77.Google Scholar
  4. Jaenike, J. 1983. Induction of host preference in Drosophila melanogaster. Oecologia 58: 320–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jaenike, J. 1988. Effects of early adult experience on host selection in insects: some experimental and theoretical results. J.Insect Behav. 1: 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jermy, T. 1987. The role of experience in the host selection of phytophagous insects. In Chapman, R.F., Bernays, E.A. and Stoffolano, J.G. (eds.) Perspectives in Chemoreception and Behavior. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 143–157.Google Scholar
  7. Papaj, D.R. and Prokopy, R.J. 1988. The effect of prior adult experience on components of habitat preference in the apple maggot fly (Rhagoletis pomonella). Oecologia 76: 538–543.Google Scholar
  8. Saxena, K.N. and Schoonhoven, L.M. 1982. Induction of orientational and feeding preferences in Manduca sexta larvae for different food sources. Entomologia Exp. Appl. 32: 172–180.Google Scholar

Compulsive requirement for novelty

  1. Bernays, E.A. 1992. Dietary mixing in generalist grasshoppers. In Menken, S.B.J., Visser, J.H. and Harrewijn, P. (eds) Proc. 8th Symp.Insect-Plant Interactions. Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, pp. 146–148.Google Scholar
  2. Bernays, E.A., Bright, K.L., Howard, J.J. and Champagne, D. 1992. Variety is the spice of life: compulsive switching between foods in the generalist grasshopper Taeniopoda eques. Anim.Behav. 44: 721–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further reading

  1. Bernays, E.A. and Bright, K.L. 1992. Dietary mixing in grasshoppers: a review. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 104:125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaney, W.M., Schoonhoven, L.M. and Simmonds, M.S.J. 1986. Sensitivity variations in insect chemoreceptors; a review. Experientia Exp.Appl. 42: 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jaenike, J. and Papaj, D. 1992. Behavioral plasticity and patterns of host use by insects. In Roitberg, B.D. and Isman, M.B. (eds.) Insect Chemical Ecology. An Evolutionary Approach. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 245–264.Google Scholar
  4. Krasne, F.B. 1984. Physiological analysis of learning in invertebrates. In Reinoso-Suarez, F. and Ajmone-Marson, C. (eds.) Cortical Integration. Raven Press, New York, pp. 53–76.Google Scholar
  5. Papaj, D.R. and Lewis, A.C. (eds.) 1992. Insect Learning. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Papaj, D.R. and Prokopy, R.J. 1989. Ecological and evolutionary aspects of learning in phytophagous insects. A.Rev.Entomol. 34: 315–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Stephens, D.W. 1991. Change, regularity and value in the evolution of animal learning. Behav.Ecol. 2: 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stephens, D.W. and Krebs, J.R. 1986. Foraging Theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  9. Szentesi, A. and Jenny, T. 1989. The role of experience in host plant choice by phytophagous insects. In Bernays, E.A. (ed.) Insect-Plant Interactions, vol. 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 39–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall, New York, NY 1994

Personalised recommendations