Indirect Transport Layer Protocols for Mobile Wireless Environment

  • Ajay V. Bakre
  • B. R. Badrinath
Part of the The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 353)


Internetworking protocols for mobile hosts have hitherto treated host mobility as a routing problem to be handled entirely within the network (IP) layer. Such an approach however, ignores the distinctive features of wireless mobile computing. IP-based transport protocols thus suffer from poor performance when used for communication between a mobile host and hosts on the wired network. This is caused by frequent disruptions in network layer connectivity due to mobility and wireless losses. We describe indirect transport layer protocols for mobile hosts which can tackle mobility and wireless related performance problems without compromising backward compatibility with the transport protocols used over the wired network. Indirect protocols utilize the resources of Mobility Support Routers (MSRs) to provide transport layer communication between mobile hosts and those on the fixed network. We also present performance figures for I-TCP, an indirect transport protocol for mobile computers that is compatible with TCP, showing substantial improvement in throughput over regular TCP.


Wireless Link Congestion Control Mobile Host Transport Layer Transport Protocol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Accetta, R. Baron, W. Bolosky, D. Golub, R. Rashid, A. Tevanian and M. Young, “Mach: a new kernel foundation for UNIX development”, Proc. of the USENIX 1986 Summer Conference, July 1986.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    E. Amir, H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan and R. Katz, “Efficient TCP over networks with wireless links”, Proc. of Fifth Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HoTOS-V), May 1995.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    B.R. Badrinath, A. Bakre, T. Imielinski and R. Marantz, “Handling Mobile Clients: A Case for Indirect Interaction”, 4th Workshop on Workstation Operating Systems (WWOS-IV), Oct. 1993.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Bakre and B.R. Badrinath, “I-TCP: Indirect TCP for mobile hosts”, Proc. of the 15th Intl. Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems, May 1995.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. Bakre and B.R. Badrinath, “Handoff and system support for indirect TCP/IP”, Proc. of the 2nd USENIX Symposium on Mobile and Location-Independent Computing, April 1995.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. Bakre and B.R. Badrinath, “M-RPC: A remote procedure call service for mobile clients” To appear in Proc. of the 1st ACM Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, Nov. 1995.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. Caceres and L. Iftode, “The Effects of Mobility on Reliable Transport Protocols”, Proc. of the 14th Intl. Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 12–20, June 1994.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. DeSimone, M.C. Chuah and O.C. Yue, “Throughput performance of transport-layer protocols over wireless LANs”, Proc. of Globecom’ 93, Dec. 1993.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S.W. Edge, “Comparison of the hop-by-hop and endpoint approaches to network interconnection”, In Flow Control in Computer Networks, J.-L. Grange and M. Gien eds., pp. 359–377, North Holland, 1979.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    D.J. Farber, G.S. Delp and T.M. Conte, “A Thinwire protocol for connecting personal computers to the Internet”, RFC 914, Sept. 1984.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. Ioannidis, D. Duchamp and G.Q. Maguire, “IP-based protocols for mobile internetworking”, Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 235–245, Sept. 1991.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    V. Jacobson, “Congestion avoidance and control”, Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 314–329, August 1988.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    V Jacobson, “Compressing TCP/IP headers for low-speed serial links”, RFC 1144, Feb. 1990.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    V. Jacobson, R. Braden and D. Borman, “TCP extensions for high performance”, RFC 1323, May 1992.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Kojo, K. Raatikainen and T. Alanko, “Connecting mobile workstations to the Internet over a digital cellular telephone network”, Mobidata Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Information Systems, Nov. 1994.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S.J. Leffler, M.K. McKusick, M.J. Karels and J.S. Quarterman, “The design and implementation of the 4.3BSD UNIX Operating System”, Addison Wesley, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    P. Manzoni, D. Ghosal and G. Serazzi, “Impact of mobility on TCP/IP: an integrated performance study”, To appear in the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 1995.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. Nagle, “Congestion control in IP/TCP Internetworks”, RFC 896, Jan. 1984.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. Postel, “User datagram protocol”, RFC 768, August 1980.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. Postel, “Transmission control protocol”, RFC 793, Sept. 1981.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Y. Rekhter and C. Perkins, “Optimal routing for mobile hosts using IP’s loose source route option”, Internet Draft, Oct. 1992.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    D. Velten, R. Hinden and J. Sax, “Reliable data protocol”, RFC 908, July 1984.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    H. Wada, T. Yozawa, T. Ohnishi and Y. Tanaka, “Mobile computing environment based on internet packet forwarding”, Proc. of the USENIX Winter Technical Conference, Jan. 1993.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    R. Yavatkar and N. Bhagwat, “Improving end-to-end performance of TCP over mobile internetworks”, IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing, Dec. 1994.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    B. Zenel and D. Duchamp, “Intelligent communication filtering for limited bandwidth environments”, Proc. of Fifth Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HoTOS-V), May 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajay V. Bakre
    • 1
  • B. R. Badrinath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations