Cochlear Influences on Development of the Brainstem Auditory System

  • Thomas N. Parks


Experimental work from several laboratories, including that reviewed by Hyson and Sanes in this volume, has shown that from the time cochlear nerve synapses are first formed on CNS auditory neurons, the developing ear exerts a powerful influence on the developing brain (see also Moore, 1992). My laboratory has studied how influences from the ear affect survival, form, connectivity, calcium homeostasis mechanisms, and neurotransmitter receptor properties of chick brainstem auditory neurons.


AMPA Receptor Cochlear Nucleus Cochlear Nerve Dendritic Length Auditory Neuron 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

8. References

  1. Agmon-Snir H, Carr CE and Rinzel J (1998) The role of dendrites in auditory coincidence detection. Nature 393:268–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buonanno A and Fields RD (1999) Gene regulation by patterned electrical activity during neural and skeletal muscle development. Curr Op Neurobiol 9:110–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chub N and O’Donovan MJ (1998) Blockade and recovery of spontaneous rhythmic activity after application of neurotransmitter antagonists to spinal networks of the chick embryo. J Neurosci 18:294–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Conlee JW and Parks TN (1981) Age-and position-dependent effects of monaural acoustic deprivation in nucleus magnocellularis of the chicken. J Comp Neurol 202:373–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conlee JW and Parks TN (1983) Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (n. magnocellularis). J Comp Neurol 217:216–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crair MC (1999) Neuronal activity during development: permissive or instructive? Curr. Op. Neurobiol. 9:88–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jackson H, Hackett JT and Rubel EW (1982) Organization and development of the brain stem auditory nuclei of the chick: ontogeny of postsynaptic responses. J Comp Neurol 210:80–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jackson H and Parks TN (1982) Functional synapse elimination in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in cochlear nerve axon branching. J Neurosci 2:1736–1743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jackson H and Parks TN (1988) Induction of novel functional afferents to the chick cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 271:106–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jhaveri SR and Morest DK (1982) Sequential alterations of neuronal architecture in nucleus magnocellularis of the developing chicken: a Golgi study. Neuroscience 7:837–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levi-Montalcini R (1949) The development of the acoustico-vestibular centers in the chick embryo in the absence of the afferent root fibers and of descending fiber tracts. J Comp Neurol 91:209–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lippe WR (1994) Rhythmic spontaneous activity in the developing avian auditory system. J Neurosci 14:1486–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lippe WR, Furhmann DS, Yang W and Rubel EW (1992) Aberrant projection induced by otocyst removal maintains normal tonotopic organization in the chick cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 12:962–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Michaelis EK (1998) Molecular biology of glutamate receptors in the central nervous system and their role in excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and aging. Progr Neurobiol 54:369–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moore DR (1992) Developmental plasticity of the brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei. In: Romand R (ed.), Development of Auditory and Vestibular Systems 2, Elsevier, New York, pp. 297–320.Google Scholar
  16. Oertel DM (1997) Encoding of timing in the brain stem auditory nuclei of vertebrates. Neuron 19:959–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Otis TS, Raman IM and Trussell LO (1995) AMPA receptors with high Ca++ permeability mediate synaptic transmission in the auditory pathway. J Physiol 482:309–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Parks TN (1979) Afferent influences on development of the brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: otocyst ablation. J Comp Neurol 183:665–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Parks TN (1981) Changes in the length and organization of nucleus laminaris dendrites after unilateral otocyst ablation in chick embryos. J Comp Neurol 202:47–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parks TN (1997) Effects of early deafness on development of brain stem auditory neurons. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106:37–43.Google Scholar
  21. Parks TN, Gill SS and Jackson H (1987) Experience-independent development of dendritic organization in the avian nucleus laminaris. J Comp Neurol 260:312–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Parks TN and Jackson H (1984) A developmental gradient of dendritic loss in the avian cochlear nucleus occurring independently of primary afferents. J Comp Neurol 227:459–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Parks TN, Taylor DA and Jackson H (1990) Adaptations of synaptic form in an aberrant projection to the avian cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 10:975–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Parks TN and Taylor DA (1993) Altered distribution of synaptic densities at aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus. Neurosci Lett 150:117–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parks TN, Code RA, Taylor DA, Solum DA, Strauss KI, Jacobowitz DM and Winsky L (1997a) Calretinin expression in the chick brainstem auditory nuclei develops and is maintained independently of cochlear nerve input. J. Comp. Neurol. 383:112–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parks TN, Hack NJ, Zirpel L, Taylor DA, Peterson AC, Charters KM, Winsky L and Kater SB (1997b) Increased calretinin expression in brainstem auditory neurons following activation of AMPA receptors by synaptic stimulation or kainate exposure. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 23:707.Google Scholar
  27. Raman IR, Zhang S and Trussell LO (1994) Pathway-specific expression of AMPA receptors and their contribution to neuronal signalling. J Neurosci 14:4998–5010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ravindranthan A, Parks TN and Rao MS (1997) New isoforms of the chick glutamate receptor subunit GluR4: molecular cloning, regional expression and developmental analysis. Mol Brain Res 50:143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ravindranathan A, Donevan SD, Sugden S, Greig A, Rao MS and Parks TN (1999) Molecular characterization of the rapidly-desensitizing and calcium-permeable AMPA receptors of auditory neurons. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers JH (1989) Two calcium-binding proteins mark many chick sensory neurons. Neurosci 31:697–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rubel EW and Parks TN (1988) Organization and development of the avian brainstem auditory system. In: Auditory function: neurobiological bases of hearing (Edelman GM et al., eds), pp 3–92. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Rubel EW, Hyson RL and Durham DD (1990) Afferent regulation of neurons in the brain stem auditory system. J Neurobiol 21:169–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith ZDJ (1981) Organization and development of the avian brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: dendritic development in n. laminaris. J Comp Neurol 203:309–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Solum D, Hughes D, Major MS and Parks TN (1997) Prevention of normally occurring and deafferentation-induced neuronal death in chick brainstem auditory neurons by periodic blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors. J Neurosci 17:4744–4751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Trussell LO (1997) Cellular mechanisms for preservation of timing in central auditory pathways. Curr Op Neurobiol 7:487–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tucci DL and Rubel EW (1985) Afferent influences on brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: effects of conductive and sensorineural loss on n. magnocellularis. J Comp Neurol 238:371–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang S and Trussell LO (1994) Voltage clamp analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in the avian nucleus magnocellularis. J Physiol 480:123–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou N and Parks TN (1991) Pharmacology of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission in nucleus laminaris of the chick. Hear Res 52:195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhou N and Parks TN (1992) Developmental changes in the effects of drugs acting at NMDA or non-NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission in the chick cochlear nucleus (n. magnocellularis). Dev Brain Res 67:145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou N and Parks TN (1993) Maintenance of pharmacologically-immature glutamate receptors by aberrant synapses in the chick cochlear nucleus. Brain Res 628:149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou N, Taylor DA and Parks TN (1995) Cobalt-permeable non-NMDA receptors in developing chick brainstem auditory neurons. NeuroReport 6:2273–2276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zirpel L, Lachica EA, Lippe WR and Rubel EW (1995) Deafferentation increases the intracellular calcium of cochlear nucleus neurons in the embryonic chick. J Neurophysiol 74:1355–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Zirpel L, Peterson AC, Taylor DA and Parks TN (1998) Developmental changes in mGluR-mediated calcium homeostasis. Soc Neurosci Abstr 24:796.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas N. Parks
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology & AnatomyUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake City

Personalised recommendations