Advertisement

Mycelial Interconnectedness

  • A. D. M. Rayner
  • G. S. Griffith
  • A. M. Ainsworth

Abstract

Fungal mycelia are capable of growth and persistence over extended, potentially unlimited periods (see also Carlile, Chapter 1). In this respect they contrast with determinate body forms, such as those of many animals and unicellular organisms, which have pre-set limits in space and time. Moreover, as different parts of a mycelial boundary expand, they remain physically linked. Events occurring within the boundary cannot therefore be totally independent, notwithstanding that there may be considerable variation in the degree of autonomy of different parts of the system. Equally importantly, all local environments that come within range of the boundary of a mycelium cannot be treated as entirely separate domains.

Keywords

Fruit Body Fungal Mycelium General Microbiology Schizophyllum Commune Mycological Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth, A.M. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1986) Responses of living hyphae associated with self and non-self fusions in the basidiomycete, Phanerochaete velutina. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 191–201.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, A.M. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1989) Hyphal and mycelial responses associated with genetic exchange within and between species of the basidiomycete genus Stereum. Journal of General Microbiology, 135, 1643–59.Google Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, A.M. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1990) Mycelial interactions and outcrossing in the Coniophora puteana complex. Mycological Research, 94, 627–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, A.M. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1991) Ontogenetic stages from coenocyte to basidiome and their relation to phenoloxidase activity and colonization processes in Phanerochaete magnoliae. Mycological Research, 95, 1414–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, A.M., Rayner, A.D.M., Broxholme, S.J. and Beching, J.R. (1990a) Occurrence of unilateral genetic transfer and genomic replacement between strains of Stereum hirsutum from non-outcrossing and outcrossing populations. New Phytologist, 115, 119–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ainsworth, A.M., Rayner, A.D.M., Broxholme, S.J. et al. (1990b) Production and properties of the sesquiterpene, (+)-torreyol, in degenerative mycelial interactions between strains of Stereum. Mycological Research, 94, 799–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ainsworth, A.M., Beeching, J.R., Broxholme, S.J. et al. (1992) Complex outcome of reciprocal exchange of nuclear DNA between two members of the basidiomycete genus Stereum. Journal of General Microbiology, 138, 1147–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, J.G. and Smith, J.E. (1971) The production of conidiophores and conidia by newly germinated conidia of Aspergillus niger (microcycle conidiation). Journal of General Microbiology, 69, 185–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, N.A. (1984) Variation and heterokaryosis in Rhizoctonia solani, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 367–82.Google Scholar
  10. Aylmore, R.C. and Todd, N.K. (1984) Hyphal fusion in Coriolus versicolor, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 103–25.Google Scholar
  11. Aylmore, R.C. and Todd, N.K. (1986) Cytology of non-self hyphal fusions and somatic incompatibility in Phanerochaete velutina. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 581–591.Google Scholar
  12. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1973) Fundamental aspects of hyphal morphogenesis. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology, 23, 245–67.Google Scholar
  13. Boddy, L. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1983) Mycelial interactions, morphogenesis and ecology of Phlebia radiata and Phlebia rufa in oak. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 80, 437–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolton, R.G. and Boddy, L. (1993) Characterisation of the spatial aspects of foraging mycelial cord systems using fractal geometry. Mycological Research, 97, 762–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bushell, M.E. (1989a) Biowars in the bioreactor. New Scientist, 124, 42–5.Google Scholar
  16. Bushell, M.E. (1989b) The process physiology of secondary metabolite production. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology, 44, 95–120.Google Scholar
  17. Casselton, L.A. and Economou, E. (1985) Dikaryon formation, in Developmental Biology of the Higher Fungi, (eds D. Moore, L.A. Casselton, D.A. Wood and J.C. Frankland), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 213–29.Google Scholar
  18. Coates, D. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1985) Genetic control and variation in expression of the ‘bow-tie’ reaction between homokaryons of Stereum hirsutum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 84, 191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coggins, C.R., Hornung, U., Jennings, D.H. and Veltkamp, C.J. (1980) The phenomenon of ‘point growth’, and its relation to flushing and strand formation in the mycelium of Serpula lacrimans. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 75, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cole, G.T., Sekiya, M., Kasai, R. et al. (1979) Surface ultrastrucrure and chemical composition of the cell walls of conidial fungi. Experimental Mycology, 3, 132–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooke, R.C. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1984) Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi, Longman, London and New York.Google Scholar
  22. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1986) Outgrowth patterns of mycelial-cord-forming basidiomycetes from and between woody resource units in soil. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 203–11.Google Scholar
  23. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1988a) The form and outcome of mycelial interactions involving cord-forming decomposer basidiomycetes in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. New Phytologist, 109, 423–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1988b) Foraging patterns of Phallus impudicus, Phanerochaete laevis and Steccherinum fimbriatum between discontinuous resource units in soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 53, 291–8.Google Scholar
  25. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1988c) Inoculation of mycelial cord-forming basidiomycetes into woodland soil and litter. I. Initial establishment. New Phytologist, 109, 335–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1988d) Inoculation of mycelial cord-forming basidiomycetes into woodland soil and litter. II. Resource capture and persistence. New Phytologist, 109, 343–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dowson, C.G., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1989a) Spatial dynamics and interactions of the woodland fairy ring fungus, Clitocybe nebularis. New Phytologist, 111, 699–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dowson, C.G., Springham, P., Rayner, A.D.M. and Boddy, L. (1989b) Resource relationships of foraging mycelial systems of Phanerochaete velutina and Hypholoma fasciculare in soil. New Phytologist, 111, 501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Franks, N.R., Gomez, N., Goss, S. and Deneubourg, J.L. (1991) The blind leading the blind in army ant raid patterns: testing a model of self-organisation (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour, 4, 583–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frese, D. and Stahl, U. (1990) Ageing in Podospora anserina — a consequence of alternative respiration?, in Fourth International Mycological Congress IMC4 Abstracts, (eds A. Reisinger and A. Bresinsky), University of Regensburg, p. 184.Google Scholar
  31. Fries, N. (1981) Recognition reactions between basidiopores and hyphae in Leccinum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77, 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garrett, S.D. (1970) Pathogenic Root-Infecting Fungi, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. Gleick, J. (1988) Chaos, Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  34. Gottlieb, D. (1971) Limited growth in fungi. Mycologia, 63, 619–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gould, SJ. and Lewontin, R.C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptionist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 205, 581–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gregory, P.H. (1966) The fungus spore: what it is and what it does, in The Fungus Spore, (ed. M.F. Madelin), Butterworth, London, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  37. Gregory, P.H. (1984) The fungal mycelium: an historical perspective. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Griffith, G.S. and Boddy, L. (1991) Fungal decomposition of attached angiosperm twigs. IV. Effect of water potential on interactions between fungi on agar and in wood. New Phytologist, 117, 633–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harley, J.L. and Smith, S.E. (1983) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  40. Hedger, J. (1990) Fungi in the tropical forest canopy. The Mycologist, 4, 200–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hiorth, J. (1965) The phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities of two culture types of Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. & Boriss. Meddelelser Norske Skogforsöksvesen, 20, 249–72.Google Scholar
  42. Ingold, C.T. (1984) Patterns of ballistopore germination in Tilletiopsis, Auricularia and Tulasnella. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 83, 583–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ikediugwu, F.E.O. and Webster, J. (1970) Antagonism between Coprinus heptemerus and other coprophilous fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 54, 181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jennings, D.H. (1984) Water flow through mycelia, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 143–64.Google Scholar
  45. Jennings, D.H. (1987) Translocation of solutes in fungi. Biological Reviews, 62, 215–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kemp, R.F.O. (1977) Oidial homing and the taxonomy and speciation of basidiomycetes with special reference to the genus Coprinus, in The Species Concept in Hymenomycetes, (ed. H. Clémencon), J. Cramer, Vaduz, pp. 259–76.Google Scholar
  47. Kück, U. (1989) Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in Podospora anserina. Experimental Mycology, 13, 111–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leatham, G.F. (1985) Growth and development of Lentinus edodes on a chemically defined medium, in Developmental Biology of Higher Fungi, (eds D. Moore, L.A. Casselton, D.A. Wood and J.C. Frankland), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 403–27.Google Scholar
  49. Leatham, G.F. and Stahmann, M.A. (1981) Studies on the laccase of Lentinus edodes: specificity, localization and association with developing fruit bodies, Journal of General Microbiology, 125, 147–57.Google Scholar
  50. Lederberg, J. (1952) Cell genetics and hereditary symbiosis. Physiological Reviews, 32, 403–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Li, C.Y. (1981) Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities in zone lines of Phellinus weirii. Mycologia, 73, 811–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lockhart, J.A. (1965) Cell extension, in Plant Biochemistry, (eds J. Bonner and J.E. Varner), Academic Press, New York, pp. 826–49.Google Scholar
  53. Lovett-Doust, L. (1981) Population dynamics and local specialization in a clonal perennial (Ranunculus repens). I. The dynamics of ramets in contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology, 69, 743–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lyr, H. (1958) Die Induktion der Laccase-Bildung bei Collybia velutipes Curt. Archiv für Mikrobiologie, 28, 310–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lyr, H. (1963) Enzymatisches Detoxifikation chlorierter Phenole. Phytopathologie Zeitschrift, 38, 342–54.Google Scholar
  56. Money, N.P. (1990) Measurement of hyphal turgor. Experimental Mycology, 14, 416–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nguyen, T.T. and Niederpruem, DJ. (1984) Hyphal interactions in Schizophyllum commune: the di-mon mating, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp. 73–102.Google Scholar
  58. Perry, D.A., Margolis, H., Choquette, C. et al. (1989) Ectomycorrhizal mediation of competition between coniferous tree species. New Phytologist, 112, 501–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prosser, J.I. (1991) Mathematical modelling of vegetative growth of filamentous fungi, in Handbook of Applied Biology, vol. 1, (eds D.H. Arora, B. Rai, K.G. Mukerji and G.R. Knudsen), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 591–623.Google Scholar
  60. Prosser, J.I. (1993) Growth kinetics of mycelial colonies and aggregates of ascomycetes. Mycological Research, 97, 513–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rayner, A.D.M. (1986) Mycelial interactions — genetic aspects, in Natural Antimicrobial Systems, (eds G.W. Gould, M.E. Rhodes Roberts A.K. Charnley, et al., Bath University Press, pp. 277–296.Google Scholar
  62. Rayner, A.D.M. (1991a) The challenge of the individualistic mycelium. Mycologia, 83, 48–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rayner, A.D.M. (1991b) Conflicting flows — the dynamics of mycelial territoriality. McIlvainea, 10, 24–35.Google Scholar
  64. Rayner, A.D.M. (1991c) The phytopathological significance of mycelial individualism. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29, 305–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rayner, A.D.M. and Coates, D. (1987) Regulation of mycelial organisation and responses, in Evolutionary Biology of the Fungi, (eds A.D.M. Rayner, C.M. Brasier and D. Moore), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 115–36.Google Scholar
  66. Rayner, A.D.M. and Franks, N.R. (1987) Evolutionary and ecological parallels between ants and fungi. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 127–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rayner, A.D.M. and Ross, I.K. (1991) Sexual politics in the cell. New Scientist, 129, 30–3.Google Scholar
  68. Rayner, A.D.M. and Webber, J. (1984) Interspecific mycelial interactions — an overview, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 383–417.Google Scholar
  69. Rayner, A.D.M., Bevercombe, G.P., Brown, T.C. and Robinson, A. (1981) Fungal growth in a lattice: a tentative explanation for the shape of diamondcankers in sycamore. New Phytologist, 87, 383–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rayner, A.D.M., Coates, D., Ainsworth, A.M. et al. (1984) The biological consequences of the individualistic mycelium, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 509–40.Google Scholar
  71. Rayner, A.D.M., Powell, K.A., Thompson, W. and Jennings, D.H. (1985) Morphogenesis of vegetative organs, in Developmental Biology of Higher Fungi, (eds D. Moore, L.A. Casselton, D.A. Wood and J.C. Frankland), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 249–79.Google Scholar
  72. Rayner, A.D.M., Boddy, L. and Dowson, C.G. (1987a) Genetic interactions and developmental versatility during establishment of decomposer basidiomycetes in wood and tree litter. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology, 41, 83–123.Google Scholar
  73. Rayner, A.D.M., Boddy, L. and Dowson, C.G. (1987b) Temporary parasitism of Coriolus spp. by Lenzites betulina: a strategy for domain capture in wood decay fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 45, 53–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rayner, A.D.M., Griffith, G.S. and Wildman, H.G. (1994) Differential insulation and the generation of mycelial patterns, in Shape and Form in Plants and Fungi, (ed. D.S. Ingram), Academic Press, London, pp. 293–312.Google Scholar
  75. Read, D.J. (1984) The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of mycorrhizal roots, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 215–40.Google Scholar
  76. Read, D.J. (1992) The mycorrhizal fungal community with special reference to nutrient mobilization, in The Fungal Community, 2nd edn, (eds G.C. Carroll and D.T. Wicklow), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 631–52.Google Scholar
  77. Ritz, K. and Crawford, J. (1990) Quantification of the fractal nature of colonies of Trichoderma viride. Mycological Research, 94, 1138–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ross, I.K. (1985) Determination of the initial steps in differentiation in Coprinus congregatus, in Developmental Biology of Higher Fungi, (eds D. Moore, L.A. Casselton, D.A. Wood and J.C. Frankland), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 353–73.Google Scholar
  79. Ruiters, M.H.J. and Wessels, J.G.H. (1989) In situ localization of specific RNAs in whole fruiting colonies of Schizophyllum commune. Journal of General Microbiology, 135, 1747–54.Google Scholar
  80. Schaffer, W.M. (1987) Chaos in ecology and epidemiology, in Chaos in Biological Systems, (eds H. Degn, A.V. Holden and L.F. Olsen), Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 233–48.Google Scholar
  81. Sharland, P.R. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1986) Mycelial interactions in Daldinia concentrica. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 86, 643–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharland, P.R. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1989) Mycelial interactions in outcrossing populations of Hypoxylon. Mycologicai Research, 93, 187–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sietsma, J.H. and Wessels, J.G.H. (1979) Evidence for covalent linkages between chitin and β-glucan in a fungal wall, Journal of General Microbiology, 114, 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith, M.L., Bruhn, J.N. and Anderson, J.B. (1992) The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature, 356, 428–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stenlid, J. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1989) Environmental and endogenous controls of developmental pathways: variation and its significance in the forest pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum. New Phytologist, 113, 245–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stringer, M.A., Dean, R.A., Sewall, T.C. and Timberlake, W.E. (1991) Rodletless, a new Aspergillus developmental mutant induced by directed gene inactivarion. Genes and Development, 5, 1161–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thompson, W. (1984) Distribution, development and functioning of mycelial cord systems of decomposer basidiomycetes of the deciduous woodland floor, in The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, (eds D.H. Jennings and A.D.M. Rayner), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 185–214.Google Scholar
  88. Thompson, W. and Rayner, A.D.M. (1983) Extent, development and functioning of mycelial cord systems in soil. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 81, 333–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Todd, N.K. and Aylmore, R.C. (1985) Cytology of hyphal interactions and reactions in Schizophyllum commune, in Developmental Biology of Higher Fungi, (eds D. Moore, L.A. Casselton, D.A. Wood and J.C. Frankland), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 231–48.Google Scholar
  90. Trinci, A.P.J. (1978) The duplication cycle and vegetative development in moulds, in The Filamentous Fungi, vol. 3, (eds J.E. Smith and D.R. Berry), Arnold, London, pp. 132–63.Google Scholar
  91. Unestam, T. (1991) Water repellency, mat formation, and leaf-stimulated growth of some ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza, 1, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Watkinson, S.C. (1977) Effect of amino acids on coremium development in Penicillium claviforme. Journal of General Microbiology, 101, 269–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Webster, J. (1987) Convergent evolution and the functional significance of spore shape in aquatic and semiaquatic fungi, in Evolutionary Biology of the Fungi, (eds A.D.M. Rayner, C.M. Brasier and D. Moore), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 191–201.Google Scholar
  94. Wells, J.M. and Boddy, L. (1990) Wood decay, and phosphorus and fungal biomass allocation, in mycelial cord systems. New Phytologist, 116, 285–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wessels, J.G.H. (1986) Cell wall synthesis in apical hyphal growth. International Review of Cytology, 104, 37–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wessels, J.G.H. (1991) Fungal growth and development: a molecular perspective, in Frontiers in Mycology, (ed. D.L. Hawksworth), CAB International, Kew, Surrey, pp. 27–48.Google Scholar
  97. Wessels, J.G.H. (1992) Gene expression during fruiting in Schizophyllum commune. Mycological Research, 96, 609–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. White, N.A. and Boddy, L. (1992) Extracellular enzyme localization during interspecific fungal interactions. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 98, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Willetts, H.J. (1978) Sclerotium formation, in The Filamentous Fungi, vol. 3 (eds J.E. Smith and D.R. Berry), Arnold, London, pp. 197–213.Google Scholar
  100. Worrall, J.J., Chet, I. and Hittermann, A. (1986) Association of rhizomorph formation with laccase activity in Armillaria spp. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 2527–33.Google Scholar
  101. Yokoyama, K. and Ogoshi, A. (1986) Studies on hyphal anastomosis of Rhizoctonia solani. TV. Observation of imperfect fusion by light and electron microscopy. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 27, 399–413.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Neil A.R. Gow and Geoffrey M. Gadd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. M. Rayner
    • 1
  • G. S. Griffith
    • 1
  • A. M. Ainsworth
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BathBathUK

Personalised recommendations