Advertisement

Yeast-Hyphal Dimorphism

  • N. A. R. Gow

Abstract

All fungi have some capacity to grow in two basic morphological forms — spheres and tubes — therefore it could be argued that they are all, to some extent, dimorphic. For many filamentous fungi spherical growth may only be expressed during the formation of spores and many yeast-like fungi have only the remnants of a true filamentous growth habit. However, the many shapes and forms found among the 64 000 recognized species of fungi are by and large generated by employing these two basic patterns of cell wall expansion. The dimorphic fungi are taken to represent those organisms in which the equilibrium between polarized and spherical growth is such that vegetative growth can occur in either a hyphal or budding mode according to environmental conditions. The term dimorphism is a misnomer since many of the so-called dimorphic fungi produce a variety of cell forms and therefore are really polymorphic.

Keywords

Yeast Cell Candida Albicans Germ Tube Phenotypic Switching General Microbiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahrens, J.C., Daneo-Moore, L. and Buckley, H.R. (1983) Differential protein synthesis in Candida albicans during blastospore formation at 24.5°C and during germ tube formation at 37°C. Journal of General Microbiology, 129, 1133–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alani, E., Cao, L and Kleckner, N. (1987) A method for gene disruption that allows repeated use of URA3 selection in the construction of multiply disrupted yeast strains. Genetics, 116, 541–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. and Soil, D.R. (1986) Differences in actin localization during bud and hypha formation in the yeast Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 2035–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aparicho, O.M., Billington, B.C. and Gottschling, D.E. (1991) Modifiers of position effects are shared between telomeric and silent mating-type loci in S. cerevisiae. Cell, 66, 1279–87.Google Scholar
  5. Barki, M., Koltin, Y., Yanko, M. et al. (1993) Isolation of a Candida albicans sequence conferring adhesion and aggregation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology, 175, 5683–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1963) Symposium on biochemical bases of morphogenesis in fungi III. Mold-yeast dimorphism of Mucor. Bacteriological Reviews, 27, 293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barton, R. and Gull, K. (1988) Variation in cytoplasmic microtubule organization and spindle length in the two forms of the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. Journal of Cell Science., 91, 211–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banuett, F. (1992) Ustilago maydis, the delightful blight. Trends in Genetics, 8, 174–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Birse, C.E., Irwin, M.Y., Fonzi, W.A. and Sypherd, P.S. (1993) Cloning and characterization of ECEI, a gene expressed in association with cell elongation of the dimorphic pathogen Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 61, 3648–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blacketer, M.J., Koehler, C.M., Coats, S.G. et al. (1993) Regulation of dimorphism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: involvement of the novel protein kinase homolog Elm1p and protein phosphatase 2A. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 13, 5567–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bölker, M., Urban, M. and Kahmann, R. (1992) The a mating type locus of U. maydis specifies cell signalling components. Cell, 68, 441–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouchara, J-P., Tronchin, G., Annaix, V. (1990) Laminin receptors on Candida albicans germ tubes. Infection and Immunity, 58, 48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Braun, P.C. and Calderone, R.A. (1978) Chitin synthesis in Candida albicans: comparison of yeast and hyphal forms. Journal of Bacteriology, 135, 1472–7.Google Scholar
  14. Brawner, D.L. and Cutler, J.E. (1986) Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 51, 327–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brawner, D.L., Cutler, J.E. and Beatty, W.L. (1990) Caveats in the investigation of form-specific molecules of Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 58, 378–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, L.A. and Chaffin, W.L. (1981) Differential expression of cytoplasmic proteins during yeast bud and germ tube formation in Candida albicans. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 27, 580–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunton, A.H. and Gadd, G.M. (1991). The effect of exogenously-supplied nucleosides and nucleotides of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in the yeast mycelium transition of Ceratocystis (= Ophiostoma) ulmi. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 60, 49–54.Google Scholar
  18. Brunton, A.H. and Gadd, G.M. (1991) Evidence for an inositol lipid signal pathway in the yeast-mycelium transition of Ophiostoma ulmi, the Dutch elm disease fungus. Mycological Research, 95, 484–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calderone, R.A. (1993) Recognition between Candida albicans and host cells. Trends in Microbiology, 1, 55–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cano, C., Herrera-Estrella, L. and Ruiz-Herrera, J. (1987) DNA methylation and polyamines in regulation of development of the fungus Mucor rouxii. Journal of Bacteriology, 170, 5946–8.Google Scholar
  21. Cano-Canchola, C., Sosa, L., Fonzi, W.A. et al. (1992) Developmental regulation of CUP gene expression through DNA methylation in Mucor spp. Journal of Bacteriology, 174, 362–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassanova, M., Gil, M.L., Cardenoso, L. et al. (1989) Identification of wall-specific antigens synthesized during germ tube formation by Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 57, 262–71.Google Scholar
  23. Chaffin, W.L. (1984) Site selection for bud and germ tube emergence in Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 130, 431–40.Google Scholar
  24. Chattaway, F.C., Wheeler, P.R. and O’Reilly, J. (1981) Involvement of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate in the germination of blastospores of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 123, 233–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen, J-Y. and Fonzi, W.A. (1992) A temperature-regulated, retrotransposon-like element from Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 174, 5624–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chu, W-S., Rikkerink, E.H.A. and Magee, P.T. (1992) Genetics of white-opaque transition in Candida albicans: demonstration of switching recessivity and mapping of switching genes. Journal of Bacteriology, 174, 2951–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, G.T. and Sun, S.H. (1985) Arthroconidium-spherule-endospore transformation in Coccidioides immitis, in Fungal Dimorphism, (ed. P.J. Szaniszlo), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 281–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole, G.T., Zhu, S., Hsu, L. et al. (1992) Isolation and expression of a gene which encodes a wall-associated proteinase of Coccidioides immitis. Infection and Immunity, 60, 416–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cole, G.T., Kruse, D., Seshan, K.R. et al (1993) Factors regulating morphogenesis in Coccidioides immitis, in Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine, (eds H. Vanden Bossche, F.C. Odds and D. Kerridge), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooper, C.R. (1993) Phase transition in Wangiella dermatitidis: identification of cell-division-cycle genes involved in yeast bud emergence, in Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine, (eds H. Vanden Bossche, F.C. Odds and D. Kerridge), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 105–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Corner, B.E., Poulter, R.T.M., Shepherd, M.G. and Sullivan, P.A. (1986) A Candida albicans mutant impaired in the utilization of N-acetyl glucosamine. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cutler, J.E. (1991) Putative virulence factors of Candida albicans. Annual Review of Microbiology, 45, 187–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cutler, J.E., Glee, P.M. and Horn, H.L. (1988) Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea-spedfic DNA fragment. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 26, 1720–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. De Bernardis, F., Adriani, D., Lorenzini, R. et al (1993) Filamentous growth and elevated vaginopathic potential of a nongerminative variant of Candida albicans expressing low virulence in systemic infection. Infection and Immunity, 61, 1500–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Douglas, L.J. (1992) Mannoprotein adhesins of Candida albicans, in New Strategies in Fungal Disease, (eds J.E. Bennett, R.H. Hay and P.K. Peterson), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 34–50.Google Scholar
  36. Dranginis, A.M. (1990) Binding of yeast al and a2 as a heterodimer to the operator DNA of a haploid-specific gene. Nature, 347, 682–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Egidy, G., Paveto, M.C. Passeron, S. and Galvagno, M.A. (1989) Relationship between cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate and germination in Candida albicans. Experimental Mycology, 13, 428–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Finney, R., Langtimm, C.J. and Soil, D.R. (1985) The programs of protein synthesis accompanying the establishment of alternative phenotypes in Candida albicans. Mycopathologia, 91, 3–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fonzi, W.A. and Irwin, M.Y. (1993) Isogenic strain construction and gene mapping in Candida albicans. Genetics, 134, 717–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Friedenthal, M., Epstein, A. and Passeron, S. (1974) Effect of potassium cyanide, glucose and anaerobiosis on morphogenesis of Mucor rouxii. Journal of General Microbiology, 82, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gadd, G.M. and Brunton, A.H. (1992) Calcium involvement in dimorphism of Ophiostoma ulmi, the Dutch elm disease fungus, and characterization of calcium uptake by yeast cells and germ tubes. Journal of General Microbiology, 138, 1561–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Geis, P.A. and Jacobs, C.W. (1985) Polymorphism of Wangiella dermatitidis, in Fungal Dimorphism, (ed P.J. Szaniszlo), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 205–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gillissen, B., Bergemann, J., Sandmann, C. et al. (1992) A two-component regulatory system for self/non-self recognition in Ustilago maydis. Cell, 68, 647–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gimeno, C.J., Ljungdahl, P.O. and Fink, G.R. (1992) Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast S. cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: regulation by starvation and RAS. Cell, 68, 1077–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gooday, G.W. and Adams, D.J. (1993) Sex hormones and fungi. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 34, 69–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gooday, G.W. and Gow, N.A.R. (1983) A model of the hyphal septum of Candida albicans. Experimental Mycology, 7, 370–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gow, N.A.R. (1988) Biochemical and biophysical aspects of dimorphism in Candida albicans, in Congress of the X International Society for Human and Animal Mycology — 1SHAM, (ed. J.M. Torres-Rodriguez), J.R. Prous Science, Barcelona, pp. 73–7.Google Scholar
  48. Gow, N.A.R. (1993) Non-chemical signals used for host location and invasion by fungal pathogens. Trends in Microbiology, 1, 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gow, N.A.R. and Gooday, G.W. (1982) Growth kinetics and morphology of colonies of the filamentous form of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 128, 2187–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gow, N.A.R. and Gooday, G.W. (1984) A model for the germination and mycelial growth form of Candida albicans. Sabouraudia, 22, 137–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gow, N.A.R., Gooday, G.W., Newsam, R. and Gull, K. (1980) Ultrastructure of the septum of Candida albicans. Current Microbiology, 4, 357–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gow, N.A.R., Swoboda, R., Bertram, G. et al. (1993) Key genes in the regulation of dimorphism of Candida albicans, in Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine (eds H. Vanden Bossche, F.C. Odds and D. Kerridge), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guthrie, C.G. and Fink, G.R. (eds) (1991) Guide to yeast genetics and molecular biology. Methods in Enzymology, 194.Google Scholar
  54. Hube, B., Turver, C.J., Odds, F.C. et al. (1991) Sequence of the Candida albicans gene encoding the secretory aspartate proteinase. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 29, 129–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Iwaguchi, S-I., Homma, M., Chibana, H. and Tanaka, K. (1992) Isolation and characterization of a repeated sequence (RSP1) of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 138, 1893–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jacobs, C.W., Roberts, R.L. and Szaniszlo, P.J. (1985) Reversal of multicellular-form development in a conditional morphological mutant of the fungus Wangiella dermatitidis. Journal of General Microbiology, 131, 1719–28.Google Scholar
  57. Kanetsuna, F., Carbonell, L.M., Moreno, R.E. and Rodriguez, J. (1969) Cell wall composition of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Journal of Bacteriology, 97, 1046–1.Google Scholar
  58. Kaur, S., Mishra, P. and Prasad, R. (1988), Dimorphism-associated changes in internal pH of Candida albicans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 972, 227–82.Google Scholar
  59. Kruse, D. and Cole, G.T. (1992) A seroactive 12-kilodalton β-l,3-glucanase of Coccidioides immitis which may participate in spherule morphogenesis. Infection and Immunity, 60, 4350–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kulkarni, R.K. and Nickerson, K.W. (1981) Nutritional control of dimorphism in Ceratocystis ulmi. Experimental Mycology, 5, 148–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lasker, B.A., Page, L.S., Lott, T.J. et al. (1991). Characterization of CARE-1: Candida albicans repetitive element-1. Gene 102, 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lasker, B.A., Page, L.S., Lott, T.J. and Kobayashi, G.S. (1992) Isolation, characterization, and sequencing of Candida albicans repetetive element 2. Gene, 116, 51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu, H., Styles, C.A. and Fink, G.R. (1993) Elements of the yeast pheromone response pathway required for filamentous growth of diploids. Science, 262, 1741–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lodder, J. (ed.) (1970) The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study. Elsevier, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  65. Manning, M. and Mitchell, T.G. (1980) Morphogenesis of Candida albicans and cytoplasmic proteins associated with differences in morphology, strain or temperature. Journal of Bacteriology, 144, 258–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Maresca, B. and Kobayashi, G.S. (1989) Dimorphism in Histoplasma capsulatum: a model for the study of cell differentiation in pathogenic fungi. Microbiological Reviews, 53, 186–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Marot-Leblond, A., Robert, R., Aubry, J. Ezcurra, P. and Senet, J-M. (1993) Identification and immunochemical charaterization of a germ tube specific antigen of Candida albicans. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 7, 175–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin, M.V., Craig, G.T. and Lamb, D.J. (1984) An investigation of the role of true hypha production in the pathogenesis of experimental oral candidosis. Journal of Veterinary and Medical Mycology, 22, 471–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Medoff, G., Sacco, M., Maresca, B. et al. (1986) Irreversible block of the mycelial-to-yeast phase transition of Histoplasma capsulatum. Science, 231, 476–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Medoff, G., Kobayashi, G.S., Painter, A and Travis, S. (1987) Morphogenesis and pathogenicity of Histoplasma capsulatum. Infection and Immunity, 55, 1355–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Merson-Davies, L.A. and Odds, F.C. (1989) A morphology index for characterization of cell shape in Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 135, 3143–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Merson-Davies, L.A. and Odds, F.C. (1992) Expansion of the Candida albicans cell envelope in different morphological forms of the fungus. Journal of General Microbiology, 138, 461–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Minchiotti, G., Gargano, S. and Maresca, B. (1991) The intron-containing hsp80 gene of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is properly spliced in severe heat shock conditions. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 11, 5624–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Morrow, B., Srikantha, T., Anderson, J. and Soil, D.R. (1993) Coordinate regulation of two opaque-phases-pecific genes during white-opaque switching in Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 61, 1823–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Muthukumar, G. and Nickerson, K.W. (1984) Ca(II)-calmodulin regulation of morphological commitment in Ceratocystis ulmi. FEMS Microbiology letters, 27, 199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Niimi, M., Niimi, K., Tokunaga, J. and Nakayama, H. (1980) Changes in the cyclic nucleotide levels and dimorphic transition in Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 142, 1010–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Odds, F.C. (1988) Candida and Candidosis. Balliere Tindall, London.Google Scholar
  78. Orlowski, M. (1991) Mucor dimorphism. Microbiological Reviews, 55, 234–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Orlowski, M. and Ross, J.F. (1981) Relationship between internal cyclic AMP levels, rates of protein synthesis and Mucor dimorphism. Archives of Microbiology, 129, 353–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oujezdsky, K.B., Grove, S.N. and Szaniszlo, P.J. (1973) Morphological and structural changes during yeast-to-mould conversion of Phialiphora dermatitidis. Journal of Bacteriology, 113, 468–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Patriaca, E.J., Kobayashi, G.S. and Maresca, B. (1992) Mitochondrial activity and heat-shock response during morphogenesis in the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 70, 207–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peryra, E., Zaremberg, V. and Moreno, S. (1992) Effect of dibutyrl-cAMP on growth and morphology of germinating Mucor rouxii sporangiospores. Experimental Mycology, 16, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ponton, J. and Jones, J.M. (1986) Identification of two germ-tube specific cell wall antigens of Candida albicans. Infection and Immunity, 54, 864–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rodrìguez-Del Valle, N., Rosario, M. and Torres-Blasini, G. (1983) Effects of pH, temperature, aeration and carbon source on the development of the mycelial and yeast forms of Sporothrix schenckii from conidia. Mycopathologia, 82, 83–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rodrìguez-Del Valle, N., Debs-Elías, N. and Alsina, A. (1984) Effects of caffeine, cyclic 3′; 5′ adenosine monophosphate and cyclic 3′, 5′ guanosine monophosphate in the development of the mycelial form of Sporothrix schenckii. Mycopathologia, 86, 29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roy, B.G. and Datta, A. (1987) A calmodulin inhibitor blocks morphogenesis in Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiology letters, 41, 327–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ruiz-Herrera, J. and Calvo-Mendez, C. (1987) Effect of ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors on the germination of sporangiospores of mucorales. Experimental Mycology, 11, 287–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rustchenko-Bugac, E.P. and Howard, D.H. (1993) Multiple chromosomal and phenotypic changes in spontaneous mutants of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 139, 1195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rustchenko-Bulgac, E.P., Sherman, F. and Hicks, J.B. (1990) Chromosomal rearrangments associated with morphological mutants provide a means for genetic variation of Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 172, 1276–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ryley, J.F. and Ryley, N.G. (1990) Candida albicans — do mycelia matter? Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 28, 225–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sabie, F.T. and Gadd, G.M. (1989) Involvement of a Ca2+-calmodulin interaction in the yeast-mycelial transition of Candida albicans. Mycopathologia, 108, 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sabie, F.T. and Gadd, G.M. (1992) Effect of nucleosides and nucleotides and the relationship between cellular adenosine 3′: 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and germ tube formation in Candida albicans. Mycopathologia, 119, 147–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sadhu, C., McEachern, M., Rustchenko-Bulgac, E.P. et al. (1991) Telomeric repeated sequences in Candida yeasts and their use in strain identification. Journal of Bacteriology, 173, 842–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. San-Bias, G. (1985) Paracoccidioides brasliensis: cell wall glucans, pathogenicity and dimorphism. Current Topics in Medical Mycology, 1, 235–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Santos, M.A.S., Keith, G. and Tuite, M.F. (1993) Nonstandard translational events in Candida albicans mediated by an unusual seryl-tRNA with a 5′-CAG-3′ (leucine) anticodon. EMBO Journal, 12, 607–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Scherer, S. and Magee, P.T. (1990) Genetics of Candida albicans. Microbiological Reviews, 54, 226–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Scherer, S. and Stevens, D.A. (1988) A Candida albicans dispersed, repeated gene family and its epidemiologic applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 85, 1452–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schultz, B., Banuett, F., Dahl, M. et al. (1990) The b alleles of U. maydis whose combinations program pathogenic development, code for polypeptides containing a homeodomain-related motif. Cell, 60, 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shepherd, M.G. (1985) Pathogenicity of morphological and auxotrophic mutants of Candida albicans in experimental infections. Infection and Immunity, 50, 541–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sherwood, J., Gow, N.A.R., Gooday, G.W. et al, (1992) Contact sensing in Candida albicans: a possible aid to epithelial penetration. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 30, 461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Simonetti, N. and Strippoli, V. (1973) Pathogenicity of the Y form as compared to M form in experimentally induced Candida albicans infections. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 51, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sipicki, M., GraUert, B. and Miklos, I. (1993) Mycelial and syncytial growth in Schizosaccharomyces pombe induced by novel septation mutants. Journal of Cell Science, 104, 485–93.Google Scholar
  103. Slutsky, B., Buffo, J. and Soil, D.R. (1985) High-frequency switching of colony morphology in Candida albicans. Science, 230, 666–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Slutsky, B., Staebell, M., Anderson, J. et al., (1987) ‘White-opaque transition’: a second high-frequency switching system in Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 169, 189–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Soil, D.R. (1992) High-frequency switching in Candida albicans. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 5, 183–203.Google Scholar
  106. Soil, D.R., Galask, R., Isley, S. et al. (1989) Switching of Candida albicans during recurrent episodes of recurrent vaginitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 27, 681–90.Google Scholar
  107. Staebell, M. and Soil, D.R. (1985) Temporal and spatial differences in cell wall expansion during bud and mycelium formation in Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 131, 1467–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stewart, E., Gow, N.A.R. and Bowen, D.V. (1988) Cytoplasmic alkalinization during germ tube formation in Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 134, 1079–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sundstrom, P.M., Tarn, M.R., Nicholls, E.J. and Kenny, G.E. (1988) Antigenic differences in the surface mannoproteins of Candida albicans as revealed by monoclonal antibodies. Infection and Immunity, 56, 6011–606.Google Scholar
  110. Suzuki, T., Kobayashi, I., Kanbe, T. and Tanaka, K. (1989) High frequency variation of colony morphology and chromosome reorganization in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 135, 425–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Swoboda, R.K., Bertram, G., Hollander, D. et al. (1993) Glycolytic enzymes of Candida albicans are nonubiquitous immunogens during candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 61, 4263–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sypherd, P.S., Borgia, P.T and Paznokas, J.L. (1978) The biochemistry of morphogenesis in the fungus Mucor. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 18, 67–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Szaniszlo, P.J. (ed.) (1985) Fungal Dimorphism. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Torosantucci, A., Angiolella, L. and Cassone, A. (1984) Antimorphogenetic effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 24, 335–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vanden Bossche, H., Odds, F.C. and Kerridge, D. (eds) (1993) Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. White, T., Miyasaki, S.H. and Agabian, N. (1993) Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 175, 6126–6123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wright, R.J., Came, A., Hieber, A.D. et al. (1992) Two genes for secreted aspartate proteinase in Candida albicans. Journal of Bacteriology, 174, 7848–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Yokoyama, K. and Takeo, K. (1983) Differences of assymetrical division between the pseudomycelial and yeast forms of Candida albicans and their effect on multiplication. Archives of Microbiology, 134, 251–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yokoyama, K., Kaji, H., Nishimura, K. and Miyaji, M. (1990) The role of microfilaments and microtubules in apical growth and dimorphism of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 136, 1067–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Neil A.R. Gow and Geoffrey M. Gadd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. A. R. Gow
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Marischal CollegeUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations