Advertisement

Molecular Biology

  • A. J. Clutterbuck

Abstract

Molecular biology provides some powerful tools for the analysis of any organism, and fungi have many advantages as subjects of molecular investigation. Molecular biology has made sense of many features of biochemistry, cell biology and genetics, from which the discipline evolved, but its methods are also applicable to much wider fields. Among these are investigations of individuality and stability of isolates, their interrelationships in populations, and their identity in taxonomic and evolutionary terms. This chapter deals first with a description of the molecular features peculiar to fungi and then with appropriate molecular methods. Methods for identifying molecular variation in fungi have been described in Chapter 11.

Keywords

Mitochondrial Genome Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa Aspergillus Nidulans Penicillium Chrysogenum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aharonowitz, Y., Cohen, G. and Martin, J.F. (1992) Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic genes: structure, organization, regulation and evolution. Annual Review of Microbiology, 46, 461–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akins, R.A., Kelly, R.L. and Lambowitz, A.M. (1986) Mitochondrial plasmids of Neurospora: integration into mitochondrial DNA and evidence for reverse transcription in mitochondria. Cell, 47, 505–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alani, E., Cao, L. and Kleckner, N. (1987) A method for gene disruption that allows repeated use of URA3 selection in the construction of multiply disrupted yeast strains. Genetics, 116, 541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, D.S., Rey, M.W., Berka, R.M. et al. (1992) Transformation of the thermophilic fungus Humicola grisea var. thermoidea and overproduction of Humicola glucoamylase. Current Genetics, 21, 225–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antequera, F., Tamame, M., Villanueva, J.R. and Santos, T. (1984) DNA methylation in the fungi, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259, 8033–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aramayo, R., Adams, T.H. and Timberlake, W.E. (1989) A large cluster of highly expressed genes is dispensable for growth and development in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics, 122, 65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arlett, C.F. (1957) Induction of cytoplasmic mutations in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature, 179, 1250–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armaleo, D., Yee, G.-N., Klein, T.M. et al. (1990) Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Current Genetics. 17, 97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnau, J., Jepsen, L.P. and Treman, P. (1991) Integrative transformation by homologous recombination in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides. Molecular and General Genetics, 225, 193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asch, D.K. and Kinsey, J. A. (1990) Relationship of vector size to homologous integration during transformation of Neurospora crassa with the cloned am (GDH) gene. Molecular and General Genetics, 221, 37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ballance, D.J. and Turner, G. (1985) Development of a high-frequency transforming vector for Aspergillus nidulans. Gene, 36, 321–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barroso, G. and Labarere, J. (1993) Transcription of naked double-stranded RNA molecules in a fraction containing large vesicles plus mitochondria from the basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita. Journal of General Microbiology, 139, 287–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertrand, H., Collins, R.A., Stohl, L.L. et al. (1980) Deletion mutants of Neurospora crassa mitochondrial DNA and their relationship to the’ stop-start’ growth phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 77, 6032–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boylan, M.T., Holland, M.J. and Timberlake, W.E. (1986) Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere CEN11 does not induce chromosomal instability when integrated into the Aspergillus nidulans genome. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 6, 3621–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brody, H., Griffith, J., Cuticchia, A.J. et al. (1991) Chromosome-specific recombinant DNA libraries from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Nucleic Acids Research, 19, 3105–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buck, K.W. (ed.) (1986) Fungal Virology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  17. Buckner, B., Novotny, C.P. and Ullrich, R.C. (1988) Developmental regulation of the methylation of the ribosomal DNA in the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. Current Genetics, 14, 105–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buxton, F.P., Gwynne, D.I. and Davies, R.W. (1989) Cloning of a new bidirectionally selective marker for Aspergillus strains. Gene, 84, 329–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caddick, M.X. and Turner, A.S. (1993) The control of gene expression in filamentous fungi, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation, 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 241–73.Google Scholar
  20. Case, M.E., Geever, R.F. and Asch, D.K. (1992) Use of gene replacement transformation to elucidate gene function in the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. Genetics, 130, 729–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caten, C.E. and Day, P.R. (1977) Diploidy in plant pathogenic fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 15, 295–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chakraborty, B.N. and Kapoor, M. (1990) Transformation of filamentous fungi by electroporation. Nucleic Acids Research, 18, 6737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan, B.S.-S., Court, D.A., Vierula, P.J., and Bertrand, H. (1991) The Kalilo linear senescence-inducing plasmid of Neurospora is an invertron and encodes DNA and RNA polymerases. Current Genetics, 20, 225–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Charron, M.J., Read, E., Haut, S.R. and Michels, C.A. (1989) Molecular evolution of the telomere-associated MAL loci of Saccharomyces. Genetics, 122, 307–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Clutterbuck, A.J. (1969a) Cell volume per nucleus in haploid and diploid strains of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology, 55, 291–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clutterbuck, A.J. (1969b) A mutational analysis of conidial development in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics, 63, 317–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Coggins, J.R., Duncan, K., Anton, I.A. et al. (1987) The anatomy of a multifunctional enzyme. Biochemical Society Transactions, 15, 754–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Conelly, J.C. and Arst, H.N., Jr (1991) Identification of a telomeric fragment from the right arm of chromosome III of Aspergillus nidulans. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 80, 295–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coppin-Raynal, E., Picard, M. and Arnaise, S. (1989) Transformation by integration in Podospora anserina III. Replacement of a chromosome segment by a two-step procedure. Molecular and General Genetics, 219, 270–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Daboussi, M.J., Djebelli, A., Gerlinger, C. et al. (1989) Transformation of seven species of filamentous fungi using the nitrate reductase gene of Aspergillus nidulans. Current Genetics, 15, 453–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, M.A. and Hynes, M.J. (1991) Regulatory circuits in Aspergillus nidulans, in More Gene Manipulations in Fungi, eds J.W. Bennett and L.L. Lasure), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 151–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. de Vries, O.M.H. and Reddingius, J. (1984) Synthesis of macromolecules and compartment size in monokaryotic and dikaryotic hyphae of Schizophyllum commune, Experimental Mycology, 8, 378–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dixon, P. A. (1959) Life history and cytology of Ascocybe grovesii Wells. Annals of Botany, NS 23, 509–20.Google Scholar
  34. Dunn-Coleman, N.S., Brodie, E.A., Carter, G.L. and Armstrong, G.L. (1992) Stability of recombinant strains under fermentation conditions, in Applied Molecular Genetics of Filamentous Fungi, eds J.R. Kinghorn and G. Turner), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 152–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunne, P.W. and Oakley, B.R. (1988) Mitotic gene conversion, reciprocal recombination and gene replacement at the benA, beta-tubulin, locus of Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 213, 339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Durrens, P., Green, P.M., Arst, H.N. Jr and Scazzocchio, C. (1986) Heterologous insertion of transforming DNA and generation of new deletions associated with transformation in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 203, 544–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dutta, S.K. and Ojha, M. (1972) Relatedness between major taxonomic groups of fungi based on the measurement of DNA nucleotide sequence homology. Molecular and General Genetics, 114, 232–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Earl, A.J., Turner, G., Croft, J.H. et al. (1981) High frequency transfer of species specific mitochondrial DNA sequences between members of the Aspergillaceae. Current Genetics, 3, 221–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ehinger, A., Denison, S.H. and May, G.S. (1990) Sequence organization and expression of the core histone genes of Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics 222, 416–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Elliott, C.G. and Maclntyre, D. (1973) Genetical evidence on the life-history of Phytophthora. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 60, 311–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fan, J.-B., Chikashige, Y., Smith, C.L. et al., (1989) Construction of a Notll restriction map of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Nucleic Acids Research, 17, 2801–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farman, M.L. and Oliver, R.P. (1992) Transformation frequencies are enhanced and vector DNA is targeted during retransformation of Leptosphaeria maculans, a fungal plant pathogen. Molecular and General Genetics, 231, 243–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fincham, J.R.S. (1989) Transformation in fungi. Microbiological Reviews, 53, 148–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Förster, H., Coffey, D., Elwood, H. and Sogin, M.L. (1990) Sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNAs of three zoosporic fungi and implications for fungal evolution. Mycologia, 82, 306–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fotheringham, S. and Holloman, W.K. (1990) Pathways of transformation in Ustilago maydis determined by DNA conformation. Genetics, 124, 833–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Francis, D.M., Hulbert, S.A. and Michelmore, R.W. (1990) Genome size and complexity of the obligate fungal pathogen Bremia lactucae. Experimental Mycology, 14, 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Garber, R.C. and Yoder, O.C. (1984) Characterization of the mitochondrial chromosome and population genetics of a restriction length polymorphism. Current Genetics, 8, 621–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Geever, R.F., Huiet, L., Baum, J.A. et al, (1989) DNA sequence, organization and regulation of the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. Journal of Molecular Biology, 207, 15–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gems, D.H. and Clutterbuck, A.J. (1993) Cotransformation with autonomously-replicating helper plasmids facilitates gene cloning from an Aspergillus nidulans gene library. Current Genetics, 24, 520–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gems, D.H., Johnstone, I.L., and Clutterbuck, A.J. (1991) An autonomously replicating plasmid transforms Aspergillus nidulans at high frequency. Gene, 98, 61–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gorman, J.A., Chan, W. and Gorman, J.W. (1991) Repeated use of GAL1 for gene disruption in Candida albicans. Genetics, 129, 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gow, N.A.R., Swoboda, R., Bertram, G. et al., (1993) Key genes in the regulation of dimorphism in Candida albicans, in Dimorphic Fungi in Biology and Medicine, (eds H. Vanden Bossche et al.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grant, D.M., Lambowitz, A.M., Rambosek, J.A. and Kinsey, J.A. (1984) Transformation of Neurospora with recombinant plasmids containing the cloned glutamate dehydrogenase (am) gene. Evidence for autonomous replication. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 4, 2041–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Greider, C.W. (1993) Telomeres and telomerase in small eukaryotes, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation; 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 31–42.Google Scholar
  55. Griffiths, A.J.F. (1992) Fungal senescence. Annual Review of Genetics, 26, 351–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gruber, F., Visser, J., Kubicek, C.P. and de Graaf, L.H. (1990) Cloning the Trichoderma reesei pyrG gene and use as a homologous marker for a high frequency transformation system. Current Genetics, 18, 447–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gurr, S.J., Unkles, S.E. and Kinghorn, J.R. (1987) The structure and organization of nuclear genes of filamentous fungi, in Gene Structure in Eukaryote Microbes (ed. J.R. Kinghorn), IRL Press, Oxford, pp. 93–139.Google Scholar
  58. Hamer, J.E., Farrell, L. Orbach, M.J. et al., (1989) Host species-specific conservation of a family of repeated DNA sequences in the genome of a fungal plant pathogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 9981–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hawker, K.L., Montague, P., Marzluf, G.A. and Kinghorn, J.R. (1991) Heterologous expression and regulation of the Neurospora crassa nit-4 pathwayspecific regulatory gene for nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Gene, 100, 237–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hawkins, A.R. (1987) The complex arom locus of Aspergillus nidulans: evidence for multiple gene fusions and convergent evolution. Current Genetics, 11, 491–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hinchcliffe, E. (1991) Strain improvement of brewing yeast, in Applied Molecular Genetics, eds J.F. Peberdy, C.E. Caten, J.E. Ogden and J.W. Bennett), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 129–45.Google Scholar
  62. Hinnen, A., Hicks, J.B. and Fink, G.R. (1978) Transformation of yeast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 75, 1929–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horowitz, N.H. and Macleod, H. (1960) The DNA content of Neurospora crassa. Microbial Genetics Bulletin, 17, 6–7.Google Scholar
  64. Horton, J.S. and Raper, C.A. (1991) Pulse-field gel electrophoretic analysis of Schizophyllum commune chromosomal DNA. Current Genetics, 19, 77–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hudspeth, M.E.S., Timberlake, W.E. and Goldberg, R.B. (1977) DNA organization in the water mold Achlya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74, 4332–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hulbert, S.H. and Michelmore, R.W. (1988) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism and osmotic variation in the lettuce downy mildew fungus, Bremia lactucae. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions, 1, 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hynes, M.J., Corrick, CM., Kelly, J.M. and Littlejohn, T.G. (1988) Identification of the sites of action for regulatory genes controlling the amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 8, 2589–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnstone, I.L., McCabe, P.C., Greaves, P. et al. (1990) Isolation and characterisation of the crnA-niiA-niaD gene cluster for nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Gene, 90, 181–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Judelson, H.S. (1993) Intermolecular ligation mediates efficient cotransformation in Phytophthora infestans. Molecular and General Genetics, 239, 241–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Katylak, Z., Lazarowska, J. and Slonimski, P.P. (1985) Inrron encoded proteins of mitochondria: key elements of gene expression and genomic evolution, in Achievements and Perspectives of Mitochondrial Research, Vol. 2, (eds E. Quagliariello, E.C. Slater, F.M. Palmieri et al.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  71. Kayser, T. and Wostermeyer, J. (1991) Electrophoretic karyotype of the zygomycete Absidia glauca: evidence for differences between mating types. Current Genetics, 19, 279–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Keller, N.P., Cleveland, T.E. and Bhatnagar, D. (1992) Variable electrophoretic karyotype of members of Aspergillus section flavi. Current Genetics, 21, 371–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kelly, J.M. and Hynes, M.J. (1987) Multiple copies of the amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans cause ritration of transacting regulatory proteins. Current Genetics, 12, 21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kingsman, A.J., Adams, S.E., Fulton, S.M. et al. (1988) The yeast retrotransposon Ty and related elements, in Transposition, 43rd Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds A.J. Kingsman, K.F. Chater and S.M. Kingsman), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 223–46.Google Scholar
  75. Kinsey, J.A. and Helber, J. (1989) Isolation of a transposable element from Neurospora crassa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 1929–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Klein, H.L. (1993) Current issues in homologous recombination, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation, 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 161–84.Google Scholar
  77. Kondrashov, A.S. and Crow, J.F. (1991) Haploidy or diploidy: which is better? Nature, 251, 314–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kovac, L., Lazowska, J. and Slonimski, P.P. (1982) A yeast with linear molecules of mitochondrial DNA. Molecular and General Genetics, 197, 420–4.Google Scholar
  79. Krumlauf, R. and Marzluf, G.A. (1979) Characterization of the genome complexity and organization of the Neurospora crassa genome. Biochemistry, 18, 3705–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krumlauf, R. and Marzluf, G.A. (1980) Genome organization and characterization of the repetitive and inverted DNA sequences in Neurospora crassa. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 1138–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kück, U. (1989) Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in Podospora anserina. Experimental Mycology, 13, 111–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kudla, B., Caddick, M.X., Langdon, T. et al. (1990) The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolic repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations affecting specificity of gene activation alter a loop residue of a putative zinc finger. EMBO Journal, 9, 1355–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lamb, H.K., Hawkins, A.R., Smith, M. et al. (1990) Spatial and biological characterisation of the complete quinic acid utilisation gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 223, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lamb, H.K., Roberts, C.F. and Hawkins, A.R. (1992a) A second gene (qutH) within the Aspergillus nidulans-quinic-acid utilisation gene cluster encodes a protein with a putative zinc-cluster motif. Gene, 112, 219–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lamb, H.K., van den Hornbergh, P.T.W., Newton, G.H. et al. (1992b) Differential flux through quinate and shikimate pathways: implications for the channelling hypothesis. Biochemical Journal, 284, 181–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lambowitz, A.M. (1989) Infectious introns. Cell, 56, 323–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lasker, B.A., Page, L.J. and Kobayashi, G.S. (1992) Isolation, characterization, and sequencing of Candida albicans repetitive element 2. Gene, 116, 51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lazarus, CM., Earl, A.J., Turner, G. and Kuntzel, H. (1980) Amplification of a mitochondrial DNA sequence in the cytoplasmically inherited ‘ragged’ mutant of Aspergillus amstelodami. European Journal of Biochemistry, 106, 633–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Le Chevanton, C., Leblon, G. and Lebilcot, S. (1989) Duplications created by transformation in Sordaria macrospora are not inactivated during meiosis. Molecular and General Genetics, 218, 390–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lemke, P. (ed.) (1979) Viruses and Plasmids in Fungi, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Lloyd, A.T. and Sharp, P.M. (1991) Codon usage in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 230, 288–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Maleszka, R., Skelly, P.J. and Clark-Walker, G.D. (1991) Rolling circle replication of DNA in yeast mitochondria. EMBO Journal, 10, 3923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Maleszka, R., and Clark-Walker, G.D. (1992) In vivo configuration of mitochondrial DNA in fungi and zoosporic moulds. Current Genetics, 22, 341–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mao, Y. and Tyler, B.M. (1991) Genome organization of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea. Experimental Mycology, 15, 283–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marzluf, G. (1981) regulation of nitrogen metabolism and gene expression in fungi. Microbiological Reviews, 45, 437–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. May, G. (1992) Fungal technology, in Applied Molecular Genetics of Filamentous Fungi eds J.R. Kinghorn and G. Turner), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McClintock, B. (1932) A correlation of ring-shaped chromosomes with variegation in Zea mays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 18, 677–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McClung, C.R., Phillips, J.D., Orbach, M.J. and Dunlap, J.C. (1989) New cloning vectors using benomyl resistance as a dominant marker for selection in Neurospora crassa and in other filamentous fungi. Experimental Mycology, 13, 299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McDonald, B.A. and Martinez, J.P. (1991) Chromosome length polymorphisms in a Septoria tritici population. Current Genetics, 19, 265–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Miao, V.P.W., Matthews, D.E. and VanEtten, H.D. (1991) Identification and chromosomal locations of a family of cytochrome P-450 genes for pisatin detoxification in the fungus Nectria haematococca. Molecular and General Genetics, 226, 214–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Miller, B.M., Miller, K.Y. and Timberlake, W.E. (1985) Direct and indirect gene replacements in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 5, 1714–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Miller, B.M., Miller, K.Y., Roberti, K. A. and Timberlake, W.E. (1987) Position-dependent and-independent mechanisms regulate cell-specific expression of the SpoCl cluster of Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 7, 427–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mitchell, M.B. and Mitchell, H.K. (1952) A case of ‘maternal’ inheritance in Neurospora crassa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 38, 442–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mooibroek, H., Kuipers, A.G.J., Sietsma, J.H. et al. (1990) Introduction of hygromycin B resistance into Schizophyllum commune; preferential methylation of donor DNA. Molecular and General Genetics, 222, 41–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nuss, D.L. (1992) Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis. Microbiological Reviews, 56, 561–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nuss, D.L. and Koltin, Y. (1990) Significance of dsRNA genetic elements in plant pathogenic fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 28, 37–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oakley, B.R., Oakley, C.E. and Rinehart, J.E. (1987) Conditionally lethal tubA ct-tubulin mutation in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 208, 135–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Oakley, B.R., Oakley, C.E., Yoon, Y. and Jung, M.K. (1990) λ-tubulin is a component of the spindle pole body that is essential for microtubule function in Aspergillus nidulans. Cell, 61, 1289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Oliver, S.G., James, C.M., Gent, M.E. and Indge, K.J. (1993) Yeast genome organization and evolution, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation; 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  110. Orbach, M.J., Vollrath, D., Davis, R.W. and Yanofsky, C. (1988) An electrophoretic karyotype of Neurospora crassa. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 8, 1469–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Orr, W.C. and Timberlake, W.E. (1982) Clustering of spore-specific genes in Aspergillus nidulans.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 79, 5976–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Orr-Weaver, T.L. and Szostak, J.W. (1985) Fungal recombination. Microbiological Reviews, 49, 33–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Osiewacz, H.D., Clairmont, A. and Huth, M. (1990) Electrophoretic karyotype of the ascomycete Podospora anserina. Current Genetics, 18, 481–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Perrot, M., Barreau, C. and Begueret, J. (1987) Nonintegrative transformation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: stabilization of a linear vector by the chromosomal ends of Tetrahymena thermophila. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 7, 1725–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Petes, T.D. and Hill, C.W. (1988) Recombination between repeated genes in microorganisms. Annual Review of Genetics, 22, 147–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Powell, W. A. and Kistler, H.C. (1990) In vivo rearrangement of foreign DNA by Fusarium oxysporium produces linear self-replicating plasmids. Journal of Bacteriology, 172, 3163–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Punt, P.J., Oliver, R.P., Dingemanse, M.A. et al. (1987) Transformation of Aspergillus based on the hygromycin resistance marker from Escherichia coli. Gene, 56, 117–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rambosek, J. and Leach, J. (1987) Recombinant DNA in filamentous fungi: progress and prospects. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 6, 357–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Randall, J., Reddy, C.A. and Boominathan, K. (1991) A novel extrachromosomally maintained transformation vector for the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Journal of Bacteriology, 173, 776–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rayner, A.D.M. (1991) The phytopathological significance of mycelial individualism. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29, 305–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rhounin, L., Rossignol, J.-L. and Faugeron, G. (1992) Epimutation of repeated genes in Ascobolus immersus. EMBO Journal, 11, 4451–7.Google Scholar
  122. Riggsby, W.S., Torres-Bauza, L.J., Wills, J.W. and Townes, T.M. (1982) DNA content, kinetic complexity, and the ploidy question in Candida albicans. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2, 853–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Robinow, C.F. (1963) Observations on cell growth, mitosis, and division in the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Journal of Cell Biology, 17, 123–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rodriguez, R.J. and Yoder, O.C. (1991) A family of conserved repetitive elements from the fungal plant pathogen Glomerella cingulata (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). Experimental Mycology, 15, 232–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rogers, H.J., Buck, K.W. and Brasier, C.M. (1987) A mitochondrial target for double-stranded RNA in diseased isolates of the fungus that causes Dutch elm disease. Nature, 329, 558–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Romaine, C.P. and Schlagnhauffer, B. (1990) Prevalence of double stranded RNAs in healthy and La France disease-infected basidiocarps of Agaricus bisporus. Mycologia, 81, 822–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rowlands, R.T. and Turner, G. (1975) Three-marker extranuclear mitochondrial crosses in Aspergillus nidulans. Molecular and General Genetics, 141, 69–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Royer, J.C., Hintz, W.E., Kerrigan, R.W. and Horgen, P. A. (1992) Electrophoretic karyotype analysis of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Genome, 35, 694–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Russell, P.J., Rodland, K.D., Rachlin, E.M. and McCloskey, J.A. (1987) Differential DNA methylation during the vegetative life cycle of Neurospora crassa. Journal of Bacteriology, 169, 2902–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sakaguchi, K. (1990) Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses. Microbiological Reviews, 54, 66–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Samac, D. A. and Leong, S. A. (1988) Two linear plasmids in mitochondria of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae. Plasmid, 19, 57–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Samac, D.A. and Leong, S.A. (1989) Characterization of the termini of linear plasmids from Nectria haematococca and their use in construction of an autonomously replicating transformation vector. Current Genetics, 16, 187–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sansome, E. (1977) Polyploidy and induced gametangial formation in British isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Journal of General Microbiology, 99, 311–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Scazzocchio, C. (1992) Control of gene expression in the catabolic pathways of Aspergillus nidulans: a personal and biased account, in Aspergillus: Biology and Industrial Applications, eds J.W. Bennett and M.A. Klich) Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp 43–68.Google Scholar
  135. Schechtman, M.G. (1990) Characterization of telomere DNA from Neurospora crassa. Gene, 88, 159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Selker, E.U. (1990) Premeiotic instability of repeated sequences in Neurospora crassa. Annual Review of Genetics, 24, 579–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sheir-Neiss, G., Lai, M.H. and Morris, N.R. (1978) Identification of a gene for B-tubulin in Aspergillus nidulans. Cell, 15, 639–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Skinner, D.Z., Budde, A.D. and Leong, S.A. (1991) Molecular karyotype analysis of fungi, in More Gene Manipulations in Fungi, eds J.W. Bennett and L. Lasure), Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 86–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Smith, MX., Bruhn, J.N. and Anderson, J.B. (1992) The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature, 356, 428–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stohl, L.H., Collins, J.C., Cole, M.D. and Lambowitz, A.M. (1982) Characterization of two new plasmid DNAs found in wild-type Neurospora intermedia strains. Nucleic Acids Research, 10, 1439–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Suzuki, T., Kanbe, T., Kuroiwa, T. and Tanaka, K. (1986) Occurrence of a ploidy shift in a strain of the imperfect yeast Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology, 132, 443–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Taylor, J.L., Borgmann, I. and Seguin-Swartz, G. (1991) Electrophoretic karyotyping of Leptosphaeria maculans differentiates highly virulent and weakly virulent isolates. Current Genetics, 19, 273–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Teakle, D.S. (1983) Zoosporic fungi and viruses: double trouble, in Zoosporic Plant Pathogens: a Modern Perspective, (ed. S.T. Buczacki), Academic Press, London, pp. 233–48.Google Scholar
  144. Timberlake, W.E. (1978) Low repetitive DNA content in Aspergillus nidulans. Science, 202, 973–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Timberlake, W.E. (1991) Cloning and analysis of fungal genes, in More Gene Manipulations in Fungi, eds J.W. Bennett and L. Lasure), Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 51–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tooley, P.W. and Carras, M.M. (1992) Separation of chromosomes of Phytophthora species using CHEF gel electrophoresis. Experimental Mycology, 16, 188–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tooley, P.W. and Therrien, CD. (1987) Cytophotometric determination of the nuclear DNA content of 23 Mexican and 18 non-Mexican isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Experimental Mycology, 11, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tsukuda, T., Carleton, S., Fotheringham, S. and Holloman, W.K. (1988) Isolation and characterization of an autonomously self-replicating sequence form Ustilago maydis. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 8, 3703–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Turgeon, B.G., Garber, R.C. and Yoder, O.C. (1986) Transformation of the fungal maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus using the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene. Molecular and General Genetics, 210, 450–3.Google Scholar
  150. Turner, G. (1991) Strategies for cloning genes from filamentous fungi, in Applied Molecular Genetics, eds J.F. Peberdy, C.E. Caten, J.E. Ogden and J.W. Bennett), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 29–43.Google Scholar
  151. Turner, G. (1993) Gene organisation in filamentous fungi, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation, 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver, and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 107–25.Google Scholar
  152. Unkles, S.E. (1992) Gene organization in industrial filamentous fungi, in Applied Genetics of Filamentous Fungi, eds J.R. Kinghorn and G. Turner), Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp. 28–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Upshall, A. (1981) Naturally occurring diploid isolates of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology, 122, 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Upshall, A. (1986) Genetic and molecular characterization of argB+ transformants of Aspergillus nidulans. Current Genetics, 10, 593–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Valent, B. and Chumley, F.G. (1991) Molecular genetic analysis of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29, 443–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. and Punt, P.J. (1991) Gene transfer systems and vector development for filamentous fungi, in Applied Molecular Genetics, eds J.F. Peberdy, C.E. Caten, J.E. Ogden and J.W. Bennett), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  157. van Heeswijk, R. (1986) Autonomous replication of plasmids in Mucor transformants. Carlsberg Research Communications, 51, 433–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ward, M., Kodama, K.H. and Wilson, L.J. (1989) Transformation of Aspergillus awamori and A. niger by electroporation. Experimental Mycology, 13, 289–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weselowski, M. and Fukuhara, H. (1981) Linear mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid from the yeast Hansenula mrakii. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1, 387–93.Google Scholar
  160. Whelan, W.L., Partridge, R.M. and Magee, P.T. (1980) Heterozygosity and segregation in Candida albicans. Molecular and General Genetics, 180, 107–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wickner, R.B. (1992) Double-stranded and singlestranded RNA viruses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Annual Review of Microbiology, 46, 347–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Williamson, D.H. (1993) Microbial mitochondrial genomes — windows on other worlds, in The Eukaryote Genome, Organisation and Regulation, 50th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, (eds P. Broda, S.G. Oliver and P.F.G. Sims), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 73–106.Google Scholar
  163. Wolf, K. and Del Giudice, L. (1988) The variable mitochondrial genome of ascomycetes: organization, mutational alterations, and expression. Advances in Genetics, 25, 186–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Woudt, L.P., Pastink, A., Kempers-Vaenstra, A.E. et al. (1983) The genes coding for H3 and H4 in Neurospora crassa are unique and contain intervening sequences. Nucleic Acids Research, 11, 5347–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wright, M.C. and Philippsen, P. (1991) Replicative transformation of the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii with plasmids containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS elements. Gene, 109, 99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wu, M.M.J., Cassidy, J.R. and Pukkila, P.J. (1983) Polymorphism in DNA of Coprinus cinereus. Current Genetics, 1, 385–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yin, S., Heckman, J. and RajBhandary, U.L., (1981) Highly conserved G.C. rich palindromic DNA sequences which flank tRNA genes in Neurospora crassa mitochondria. Cell, 26, 326–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Neil A.R. Gow and Geoffrey M. Gadd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Clutterbuck
    • 1
  1. 1.Genetics Building, Institute of Biomedical and Life SciencesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations