In this section, we will deal with the nutrient mixtures that are usually called media. In actual use, these will almost always be supplemented with serum or another complex biological fluid (milk, embryo extracts, and plasma are examples), or, as discussed in Chapter 8, with a defined mixture of hormones and growth factors. The ongoing experimental work of replacing the complex mixtures with defined components, both nutrients and proteins, largely has been responsible both for our understanding of what the medium does in cell culture and for our increased technical ability to maintain a broad range of functional cells in vitro.


Retinoic Acid Nutrient Mixture Pump Head Basal Media Eagle Weak Estrogenic Activity 
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© Plenum Press, New York 1998

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