Information Refraction

  • William Harvey
  • Karen Bilotta
  • Cynthia Grese
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 371)


Gartner Group Consultants have estimated that a typical mid-size company could spend as much as $3 to $4 million in personnel and computer resources to make the “turn-of-the-century” (01-01-00) transition [IBM96]. According to the most recent studies conducted by the American Bankers Association (ABA), incidents of check fraud have more than doubled over the past few years (over 1.3 million cases are documented) and industry losses are mounting rapidly — ranging from $568 million to $815 million [BSY96]. In April, 1994, a major financial consulting firm alleged that a government bond trader had created $350 million dollars of “nonexistent profits” with the misuse of a decision support system [M95].


Software Reliability Acceptable Risk Processing Medium Computer Information System Automate Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Harvey
    • 1
  • Karen Bilotta
    • 1
  • Cynthia Grese
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Information Management Robert Morris CollegeUSA

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