Reciprocity in the development of Anglo-American medical ethics, 1765–1865

  • Chester Burns
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 49)


From the beginnings of recorded human history, ideals and ideas about values have been associated with the personal and professional activities of medical practitioners. The professional values can be classified best under the following four headings: (1) the education of medical practitioners, (2) consultations with other practitioners, (3) transactions between physicians and patients, and (4) relationships between medical practitioners and communities. During the one hundred years encompassed by this study, Anglo-American physicians experienced value changes within all four of these categories of interpersonal relationships (see [3], [8]). These changes are well illustrated by the ideals of three British physicians: John Gregory (1724–1773), Thomas Percival (1740–1804), and Michael Ryan (1800–1841).


Medical Ethic Medical Practitioner Forensic Medicine Medical Society Professional Ethic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Medical Association: 1847, Proceedings of the National Medical Conventions, Held in New York, May, 1846, and in Philadelphia, May, 1847, Philadelphia; this volume, pp. 65–88.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    British Medical Journal 1858, 657–8; 1859, 631.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Forbes, R.: 1954, “Medical Ethics in Great Britain,” World Medical Journal 1, 297–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gregory, J.: 1772, Lectures on the Duties and Offices of a Physician and on the Method of Prosecuting Enquries in Philosophy, W. Straham and T. Cadell, London.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haywood, J.: 3 December 1848, “Letter to Isaac Hays,” located in Isaac Hays’s Papers, Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hays, I.: 1847, “Note,” Code of Ethic, this volume, pp. 73–74.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hooker, W.: 1849, Physician and Patient; or, a Practical View of the Mutual Duties, Relations and Interests of the Medical Profession and the Community, Baker and Scribner, New York.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kesteven, W. B.: 1849, “Thoughts on medical ethics,” London Medical Gazette 9, 408–14.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    King, L.: 1958, The Medical World of the Eighteenth Century, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Medico-Chirurgical Society of Baltimore: 1832, The System of Medical Ethics Adopted by the Society, Being the Report of the Committee on Ethics, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    New York State Medical Society: 1823, A System of Medical Ethics, Published by the Order of the State Medical Society of New York, New York.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Percival, T.: 1803, Medical Ethics; Or, A Code of Institutes and Precepts. Adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons, J. Johnson, London.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ryan, M.: 1831, A Manual of Jurisprudence, compiled from the best medical and legal works: comprising an account of: The Ethics of the Medical Profession, II. The Charter and Statutes Relating to the Faculty; and III. All Medico-legal Questions, with the latest discussions. Being an Analysis of a Course of Lectures on Forensic Medicine Annually Delivered in London and intended as a compendium for the use of barristers, soliciters, magistrates, coroners, and medical practitioners, Renshaw and Rush, London.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rush, B.: 1811, in Sixteen Introductory Lectures, Philadelphia, pp. 141–65.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warren, J., Hayward, L., and Fleet, J.: 1808, The Boston Medical Police, Association of Boston Physicians, Boston, this volume, pp. 41–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chester Burns
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for the Medical HumanitiesUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalveston

Personalised recommendations