Paged Two-Level Memories: Approximate Models and Efficient Computations
In section 4.6 we developed a general method of evaluating the miss ratio for the independent reference model (IRM) of program behavior. This model ignored the fact that there are two essentially different types of program behavior. One applies when the program is referencing within a locality and the other when the program is changing locality. The IRM had one further shortcoming. Even for moderate memory sizes and numbers of program pages, the IRM requirements in computer time and space exceed the available resources when formula (4.34) or its explicit variants, e.g. (4.35) or (4.36), are used. A similar shortcoming obtains in general in the Markov model of program behavior.
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