Advertisement

Proof Burdens and Standards

  • Thomas F. Gordon
  • Douglas Walton
Chapter

This chapter explains the role of proof burdens and standards in argumentation, illustrates them using legal procedures, and surveys the history of research on computational models of these concepts. It also presents an original computational model which aims to integrate the features of these prior systems.

Keywords

Reasonable Doubt Argumentation Scheme Argumentation Framework Default Theory Proof Standard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We’d like to thank Trevor Bench-Capon and Henry Prakken for their helpful comments on various drafts of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Anderson, D. Schum, and W. Twining. Analysis of Evidence. Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Atkinson and T. Bench-Capon. Argumentation and standards of proof. In ICAIL ’07: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Artificial intelligence and law, pages 107–116, New York, NY, USA, 2007. ACM.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. C. Beardsley. Practical Logic. Prentice Hall, New York, 1950.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Bench-Capon. Persuasion in practical argument using value-based argumentation frameworks. Journal of Logic and Computation, 13(3):429–448, 2003.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. J. Bench-Capon, S. Doutre, and P. E. Dunne. Audiences in argumentation frameworks. Artificial Intelligence, 171(42-71), 2007.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Besnard and A. Hunter. Elements of Argumentation MIT Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Bing. Uncertainty, decisions and information systems. In C. Ciampi, editor, Artificial Intelligence and Legal Information Systems. North-Holland, 1982.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. C. Black. Black’s Law Dictionary. West Publishing Co., 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Bondarenko, P. M. Dung, R. A. Kowalski, and F. Toni. An abstract, argumentation-theoretic approach to default reasoning. Artificial Intelligence, 93(1-2):63–101, 1997.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. M. Dung. On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and n-person games. Artificial Intelligence, 77(2):321–357, 1995.MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. B. Freeman. Dialectics and the Macrostructure of Arguments: A Theory of Argument Structure Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Freeman and A. M. Farley. A model of argumentation and its application to legal reasoning. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 4(3-4):163–197, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. F. Gordon. Some problems with Prolog as a knowledge representation language for legal expert systems. In C. Arnold, editor, Yearbook of Law, Computers and Technology, pages 52–67. Leicester Polytechnic Press, Leicester, England, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. F. Gordon. The Pleadings Game; An Artificial Intelligence Model of Procedural Justice. Springer, New York, 1995. Book version of 1993 Ph.D. Thesis; University of Darmstadt.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. F. Gordon. Visualizing Carneades argument graphs. Law, Probability and Risk, 6(1-4):109–117, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. F. Gordon. Hybrid reasoning with argumentation schemes. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Computational Models of Natural Argument (CMNA 08), pages 16–25, Patras, Greece, July 2008. The 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2008).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. F. Gordon and N. Karacapilidis. The Zeno argumentation framework. InProceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pages 10–18, Melbourne, Australia, 1997. ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. F. Gordon, H. Prakken, and D. Walton. The Carneades model of argument and burden of proof. Artificial Intelligence, 171(10-11):875–896, 2007.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. F. Gordon and D. Walton. The Carneades argumentation framework — using presumptions and exceptions to model critical questions. In P. E. Dunne and T. J. Bench-Capon, editors, Computational Models of Argument. Proceedings of COMMA 2006, pages 195–207, Amsterdam, September 2006. IOS Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Hage. A theory of legal reasoning and a logic to match. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 4(3-4):199–273, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. L. A. Hart. Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. Kunz and H. W. Rittel. Issues as elements of information systems. Technical report, Institut für Grundlagen der Planung, Universität Stuttgart, 1970. also: Center for Planning and Development Research, Institute of Urban and Regional Development Research. Working Paper 131, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Prakken. Modeling defeasibility in law: Logic or procedure? Fundamenta Informaticae, 48:253–271, 2001.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Prakken. A study of accrual of arguments, with applications to evidential reasoning. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pages 85–94, New York, 2005. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Prakken. A formal model of adjudication. In S. Rahman, editor, Argumentation, Logic and Law. Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, 2008.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Prakken, C. Reed, and D. Walton. Dialogues about the burden of proof. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pages 85–94, Bologna, 2005. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Prakken and G. Sartor. A dialectical model of assessing conflicting argument in legal reasoning. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 4(3-4):331–368, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Prakken and G. Sartor. Presumptions and burden of proof. In T. van Engers, editor, Legal Knowledge and Information Systems. JURIX 2006: The Nineteenth Annual Conference, pages 21–30, Amsterdam, 2006. IOS Press.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Prakken and G. Sartor. Formalizing arguments about the burden of persuasion. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pages 97–106, New York, 2007. Stanford University, ACM Press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Prakken and G. Sartor. A logical analysis of burdens of proof. In H. Kaptein, H. Prakken, and B. Verheij, editors, Legal Evidence and Proof: Statistics, Stories, Logic, Applied Legal Philosophy Series. Ashgate Publishing, 2009.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Rawls. Outline of a decision procedure for ethics. Philosophical Review, 1951.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Rescher. Dialectics: A Controversy-Oriented Approach to the Theory of Knowledge. State University of New York Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. W. Rittel and M. M. Webber. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Science, 4:155–169, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Rosenberg, J. B. Weinstein, H. Smit, and H. L. Korn. Elements of Civil Procedure. Foundation Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Sartor. Defeasibility in legal reasoning. In Informatics and the Foundations of Legal Reasoning, Law and philosophy library, pages 119–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1995.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. Satoh, S. Tojo, and Y. Suzuki. Formalizing a switch of burden of proof by logic programming. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Juris-Informatics (JURISIN 2007), pages 76–85, Miyazaki, Japan, 2007.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. Walton. The new dialectic: A method of evaluating used for some purpose in a given case. ProtoSociology, 13:70–91, 1999.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. Walton. Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer FOKUSBerlinGermany
  2. 2.University of WindsorWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations