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Insulin Signaling and Type 2 Diabetes

  • Martin Beckerman
Chapter
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is caused by dysregulated metabolism resulting in insufficient glucose entry into tissues leading to excessively high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). The dysregulation arises from a failure of insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin and from a failure of target tissues to properly respond to the insulin signals directing them to take up the glucose.

There are two main forms of diabetes – Type 1 diabetes (T1D) also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The cause of T1D is destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells by the immune system’s T cells. That is, T1D is an autoimmune disease in which there is a failure to produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes arises through a failure of insulin to elicit a large-enough response in the target tissues. That is, T2D is brought on by insulin resistance on the part of...

Keywords

Insulin Resistance Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress KATP Channel Insulin Receptor Substrate Stromal Vascular Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak RidgeUSA

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