Parkinson’s Disease

  • Martin Beckerman
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Parkinson’s disease is the leading disease affecting motor function and the second most common neurological disorder overall. This movement disorder is named for the English physician James Parkinson who first described the disease as “shaking palsy” in 1817. As described by Parkinson, the disease is characterized by a slowing of movement (bradykinesia), muscle rigidity, resting tremor, and postural righting defects. In PD, there is a degeneration of neurons in a region of the midbrain called the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). These neurons use dopamine as their neurotransmitter, sending their axons to neurons in the striatum responsible for initiating and controlling movement. The lack of adequate dopamine signaling results in failed motor control, and leads in its later stages to cell death and eventually to falling and dementia. The disease is not limited to nigrostriatal dopamine area; but rather, other, nondopamine areas are involved, as well. Parkinson’s disease affects...


Multiple System Atrophy Lewy Body Protein Carbonylation Misfolded Protein Autosomal Recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak RidgeUSA

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