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Cell Cycle Checkpoints and DNA Damage Repair

  • Martin Beckerman
Chapter
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Oncogene-driven, abnormal patterns of cell growth and division generate DNA damage, and this damage triggers a cellular response aimed at preventing inappropriate cell proliferation. Even in the absence of oncogene-driven processes, cells are continually exposed to DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, environmental chemicals, and mutagens, and carcinogens generated endogeneously. As a result, DNA is continually monitored for damage and quickly repaired when damage is detected. This same system responds to the oncogene-driven damage, as well.

Because of its importance there are five distinct DNA damage repair systems. The base excision repair (BER) system removes bases damaged by both exogenous and endogenous agents. The latter causes of damage such as oxygen radicals, alkylating chemicals, and deaminating agents predominate. Injuries brought on by these causes do not, in general, distort the DNA helix and are remedied by specialized repair glycosylases. Nucleotide excision...

Keywords

Nucleotide Excision Repair Damage Site Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Checkpoint Pathway Stall Replication Fork 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak RidgeUSA

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