• Martin Beckerman
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)

Claude Bernard (1813–1878) is widely regarded as the father of modern experimental physiology. Writing in 1853 Bernard noted that what makes a living organism different from a nonliving one is its ability to regulate its own internal environment. The internal environment referred to by Bernard meant the bodily fluids, especially lymph and blood that circulate throughout the body and make contact with and bathes all its cells. What characterizes life is not some vital force, but rather the body’s ability to maintain the constancy of its milieu intérieur in the presence of, and independently from, a sometimes dangerous and always varying external environment

The pancreas and liver have key roles in diabetes mellitus. Claude Bernard explored the roles of these organs in a series of pioneering experiments carried out over several years beginning in the mid to the late 1840s. He began with the pancreas and its secretions during digestion and then moved on to study the liver and...


Misfolded Protein Prion Disease Amyloid Fibril Internal Environment Systemic Amyloidosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak RidgeUSA

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