Photofunctionalization of Materials to Promote Protein and Cell Interactions for Tissue-Engineering Applications

  • Shalu Suri
  • Ankur Singh
  • Christine E. Schmidt


Photofunctionalization has been utilized extensively for cell and tissue-engineering research, most commonly in the form of photopolymerization and photografting. Photopolymerization can be performed in vivo, in a minimally invasive manner, and with spatial and temporal control permitting the fabrication of complex scaffolds. A number of natural as well as synthetic polymers have been photofunctionalized to engineer tissues such as bone, cartilage, and skin. In this chapter, we describe the basic mechanism of photofunctionalization and different photoinitiators utilized in the biomedical field. The chapter also focuses on the different photofunctionalization strategies including photopolymerization, photografting, and some advanced techniques, and how these techniques have been explored to study cell, protein, and scaffold interactions. Some of the applications of photofunctionalization in the field of neural, bone, and cartilage tissue engineering are also discussed.


Nerve Growth Factor Hyaluronic Acid Cartilage Tissue Engineering Hydrogel Scaffold Live Radical Polymerization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



brain-derived neurotrophic factor


calmodulin CQcamphorquinone


chondroitin sulphate CTNFciliary neurotrophic factor




dithiocarbamate ECMextracellular matrix


glycosaminoglycans HAhyaluronic acid


hydroxyapatite I2959irgacure 2959


interpenetrating polymeric network


isopropyl-thioxanthone LRPliving radical polymerization


mesenchymal stem cells NGFnerve growth factor


neurotrophin-3 PAApolyallylamine


poly(ethylene glycol)


poly(glycolic acid) PIphotoinitiator


poly(lactic acid)


poly(methacrylated pyromellitylimidoalanine)


arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide


tetra-ethylthiuram disulfide


transforming growth factor



We would like to thank and recognize Maeve Cooney for assistance with editing. We would like to thank Tera Sherrard for assistance with copyright permission and for obtaining high-resolution images. We would like to acknowledge Jeffrey A. Hubbell, Kristi S. Anseth, Sylvia Daunert, and Jose Luis Pedraz for contributions of figures used in this chapter. We would also like to thank Scott Zawko for his valuable feedback and input on this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shalu Suri
    • 1
  • Ankur Singh
    • 1
  • Christine E. Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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