Advertisement

Protein Adsorption to Biomaterials

  • David Richard Schmidt
  • Heather Waldeck
  • Weiyuan John Kao
Chapter

Abstract

Within milliseconds after biomaterials come in contact with a biological fluid such as blood, proteins begin to adhere to the surface through a process known as protein adsorption. Protein adsorption is initially strongly influenced by protein diffusion, but protein affinity for the surface becomes critically important and, over time, higher-affinity proteins can be replaced by lower-affinity proteins in a dynamic process. By the time cells arrive, the material surface has already been coated in a monolayer of proteins; hence, the host cells do not “see” the material but “see” instead a dynamic layer of proteins. Multiple parameters influence protein adsorption to a substrate surface including the chemical and physical properties of both the protein and the material surface, as well as the presence of other proteins on the surface.

Many methods have been developed in the last several decades to study protein adsorption to biomaterial surfaces. These new techniques provide information about the type and conformation of adsorbed proteins from multicomponent solutions such as blood serum. Nanomaterials as well as functional group immobilization and novel, stimuli-sensitive polymer surfaces have provided new alternatives for the study and modulation of protein adsorption, with insight into the mechanisms underlying protein adsorption and subsequent cell adhesion. However, a molecular-level understanding of all aspects of protein adsorption is still incomplete. The future of this field, however, is bright as new technologies offer great promise for further elucidation of protein adsorption.

Keywords

Material Surface Protein Adsorption Tissue Culture Polystyrene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Adsorbed Protein Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

ATR-FTIR

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

HA

Hydroxyapatite

IR

Infrared

MALDI-ToF/MS

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight massspectrometry

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PEO

Polyethylene oxide

pI

Isoelectric point

PLGA

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

PLLA

Poly(l-lactic acid)

PNIPAAm

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

RGD

Arginine–glycine–aspartic acid

SAM

Self-assembled monolayer

SEIRA

Surface-enhanced infrared absorption

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SPR

Surface plasmon resonance

STM

Scanning tunneling microscopy

ToF-SIMS

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

References

  1. 1.
    Dee KC, Puleo DA, Bizios R. Protein–surface interactions. In: Dee KC, Puleo DA, Bizios R, editors. An intro­duction to tissue-biomaterial interactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2002Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Horbett TA. The role of adsorbed proteins in tissue response to biomaterials. In: Ratner BD, Hoffman AS, Schoen FJ, Lemons JE, editors. Biomaterials science. An introduction to materials in medicine. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004, pp. 237–246Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson JM, Rodriguez A, Chang DT. Foreign body reaction to biomaterials. Semin Immunol 2008;20:86–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakanishi K, Sakiyama T, Imamura K. On the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces, a common but very complicated phenomenon. J Biosci Bioeng 2001;91(3):233–244Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramsden JJ. Puzzles and paradoxes in protein adsorption. Chem Soc Rev 1995;73–78Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim MS, Khang G, Lee HB. Gradient polymer surfaces for biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 2008;33:138–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sun S, Yue Y, Hunag X, Meng D. Protein adsorption on blood–contact membranes. J Membr Sci 2003; 222:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thevenot P, Wenjing H, Tang L. Surface chemistry influences implant biocompatibility. Curr Top Med Chem 2008;8:270–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roach P, Eglin D, Rhode K, Perry CC. Modern biomaterials: a review – bulk properties and implications of surface modifications. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 2007;18:1263–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reintjes T, Tessmar J, Gopferich A. Biomimetic polymers to control cell adhesion. J Drug Del Sci Tech 2008;18(1):15–24Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ratner BD, Bryant SJ. Biomaterials: where we have been and where we are going. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2004;6:41–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mayorga L, Ratner BD, Horbett TA. The role of complement adsorption and activation in monocyte adhesion to ultralow protein adsorption surfaces made by RF plasma deposition of PEO–like tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme). World Biomater Congr 2008:1162.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmidt DR, Kao WJ. Monocyte activation in response to polyethylene glycol hydrogels grafted with RGD and PHSRN separated by interpositional spacers of various lengths. J Biomed Mater Res 2007;83A(3):617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller R, Fainerman VB, Leser ME, Michel M. Kinetics of adsorption of proteins and surfactants. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2004;9:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Merret K, Cornelius RM, McClung WG, Unsworth LD, Sheardown H. Surface analysis methods for characterizing polymeric biomaterials. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2002;6:593–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bhaduri A, Das KP. Proteins at solid water interface – a review. J Dispers Sci Technol 1999;20(4):1097–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McArthur SL. Applications of XPS in bioengineering. Surf Interface Anal 2006;38:1380–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wahlgren M, Arnebrant T. Protein adsorption to solid surfaces. Tibtech 1991;9:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hlady V, Buijs J, Jennissen P. Methods for studying protein adsorption. Methods Enzymol 1999;309(26): 402–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ataka K, Heberle J. Biochemical applications of surface–enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007;388:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elwing H. Protein absorption and ellipsometry in biomaterial research. Biomaterials 1998;19:397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gallagher WM, Lynch I, Allen LT, Miller I, Penney SC, O’Connor DP, Pennington S, Keenan AK, Dawson KA. Molecular basis of cell–biomaterial interaction: Insights gained from transcriptomic and proteomic studies. Biomaterials 2006;27:5871–5882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silva LP. Imaging proteins with atomic force microscopy: an overview. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2005;6:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bonanni B, Andolfi L, Bizzarri R, Cannistraro S. Functional metalloproteins integrated with conductive substrates: detecting single molecules and sensing individual recognition events. J Phys Chem B 2007;111: 5062–5075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garczarek F, Gerwert K. Integration of layered redox proteins and conductive supports for bioelectronic applications. Agnew Chem Int Ed 2000;39:1180–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu H, Webster TJ. Nanomedicine for implants: a review of studies and necessary experimental tools. Biomaterials 2007;28:354–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vinu A, Miyahara M, Ariga K. Assemblies of biomaterials in mesoporous media. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2006;6(6):1510–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wie G, Ma PX. Structure and properties of nano–hydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2004;25:4749–4757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Webster TJ, Ergun C, Doremus RH, Siegel RW, Bizios R. Specific proteins mediate enhanced osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics. J Biomed Mater Res 2000;51(3):475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Webster TJ, Schadler LS, Siegel RW, Bizios R. Mechanisms of enhanced osteoblasts adhesion on nanophase alumina involve vitronectin. Tissue Eng 2001;7(3):291.301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miller DC, Haberstroh KM, Webster TJ. PLGA nanometer surface features manipulate fibronectin interactions for improved vascular cell adhesion. J Biomed Mater Res 2007;81A(3):678–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu L, Chen S, Giachelli CM, Ratner BD, Jian S. Controlling osteopontin orientation on surfaces to modulate endothelial cell adhesion. J Biomed Mater Res 2005;74:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jandt KD. Evolutions, revolutions and trends in biomaterials science – a perspective. Adv Eng Mater 2007;9(12):1035–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mano JF. Stimuli–responsive polymeric systems for biomedical applications. Adv Eng Mater 2008;10(6): 515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nakanishi J, Kikuchi Y, Takarada T, Nakayama H, Yamaguchi K, Maeda M. Spatiotemporal control of cell adhesion on a self-assembled monolayer having a photocleavable protecting group. Anal Chim Acta 2006;578:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Richard Schmidt
    • 1
  • Heather Waldeck
    • 2
  • Weiyuan John Kao
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA;
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringCollege of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations