Advertisement

Optically Resonant Nanophotonic Devices for Label-Free Biomolecular Detection

  • Julie Goddard
  • Sudeep Mandal
  • David Erickson
Chapter
Part of the Integrated Analytical Systems book series (ANASYS)

Abstract

Optical devices, such as surface plasmon resonance chips and waveguide-based Mach–Zehnder interferometers, have long been successfully used as label-free biomolecular sensors. Recently, however, there has been increased interest in developing new approaches to biomolecular detection that can improve on the limit of detection, specificity, and multiplexibility of these early devices and address emerging challenges in pathogen detection, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. As we describe in this chapter, planar optically resonant nanophotonic devices (such as ring resonators, whispering gallery modes, and photonic crystal cavities) are one method that shows promise in significantly advancing the technology. Here we first provide a short review of these devices focusing on a handful of approaches illustrative of the state of the art. We then frame the major challenge to improving the technology as being the ability to provide simultaneously spatial localization of the electromagnetic energy and biomolecular binding events. We then introduce our “Nanoscale Optofluidic Sensor Arrays” which represents our approach to addressing this challenge. It is demonstrated how these devices serve to enable multiplexed detection while localizing the electromagnetic energy to a volume as small as a cubic wavelength. Challenges involved in the targeted immobilization of biomolecules over such a small area are discussed and our solutions presented. In general, we have tried to write this chapter with the novice in mind, providing details on the fabrication and immobilization methods that we have used and how one might adapt our approach to their designs.

Keywords

Capture Probe Resonant Wavelength Evanescent Field Microring Resonator Local Refractive Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Rich, R. L.; Myszka, D. G., Survey of the year 2006 commercial optical biosensor literature, J. Mol. Recognit. 2007, 20, 300–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sander, C., Genomic medicine and the future of health care, Science 2000, 287, 1977–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Srinivas, P. R.; Kramer, B. S.; Srivastava, S., Trends in biomarker research for cancer detection, Lancet Oncol. 2001, 2, 698–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Srinivas, P. R.; Verma, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Srivastava, S., Proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery, Clin. Chem. 2002, 48, 1160–1169Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Growdon, J. H., Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease, Arch. Neurol. 1999, 56, 281–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ross, J. S.; Schenkein, D. P.; Kashala, O.; Linette, G. P.; Stec, J.; Symmans, W. F.; Pusztai, L.; Hortobagyi, G. N., Pharmacogenomics, Adv. Anat. Pathol. 2004, 11, 211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hernandez, J.; Thompson, I. M., Prostate-specific antigen: A review of the validation of the most commonly used cancer biomarker, Cancer 2004, 101, 894–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ward, A. M.; Catto, J. W. F.; Hamdy, F. C., Prostate specific antigen: Biology, biochemistry and available commercial assays, Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2001, 38, 633–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sidransky, D., Emerging molecular markers of cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2002, 2, 210–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wulfkuhle, J. D.; Liotta, L. A.; Petricoin, E. F., Proteomic applications for the early detection of cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2003, 3, 267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Straub, T. M.; Chandler, D. P., Towards a unified system for detecting waterborne pathogens, J. Microbiol. Methods 2003, 53, 185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rasooly, A.; Herold, K. E., Biosensors for the analysis of food- and waterborne pathogens and their toxins, J. AOAC Int. 2006, 89, 873–883Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McBride, M. T.; Masquelier, D.; Hindson, B. J.; Makarewicz, A. J.; Brown, S.; Burris, K.; Metz, T.; Langlois, R. G.; Tsang, K. W.; Bryan, R.; Anderson, D. A.; Venkateswaran, K. S.; Milanovich, F. P.; Colston, B. W., Autonomous detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 5293–5299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stetzenbach, L. D.; Buttner, M. P.; Cruz, P., Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2004, 15, 170–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erickson, D.; Mandal, S.; Yang, A.; Cordovez, B., Nanobiosensors: Optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2008, 4, 33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seydack, M., Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods, Biosensors Bioelectron. 2005, 20, 2454–2469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zheng, G. F.; Patolsky, F.; Cui, Y.; Wang, W. U.; Lieber, C. M., Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays, Nat. Biotechnol. 2005, 23, 1294–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, C.; Curreli, M.; Lin, H.; Lei, B.; Ishikawa, F. N.; Datar, R.; Cote, R. J.; Thompson, M. E.; Zhou, C. W., Complementary detection of prostate-specific antigen using ln(2)O(3) nanowires and carbon nanotubes, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 12484–12485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Majumdar, A., Bioassays based on molecular nanomechanics, Dis. Markers 2002, 18, 167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ouyang, H.; Striemer, C. C.; Fauchet, P. M., Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006, 88, 163108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chow, E.; Grot, A.; Mirkarimi, L. W.; Sigalas, M.; Girolami, G., Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity, Opt. Lett. 2004, 29, 1093–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmidt, B.; Almeida, V.; Manolatou, C.; Preble, S.; Lipson, M., Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2004, 85, 4854–4856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pollock, C.; Lipson, M., Integrated Photonics, Kluwer, Norwell, MA, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prasad, P., Nanophotonics, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luff, B. J.; Wilkinson, J. S.; Piehler, J.; Hollenbach, U.; Ingenhoff, J.; Fabricius, N., Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor, J. Lightwave Technol. 1998, 16, 583–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prieto, F.; Sepulveda, B.; Calle, A.; Llobera, A.; Dominguez, C.; Abad, A.; Montoya, A.; Lechuga, L. M., An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications, Nanotechnology 2003, 14, 907–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heideman, R. G.; Lambeck, P. V., Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: Design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system, Sensors Actuat. B-Chem. 1999, 61, 100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chao, C. Y.; Fung, W.; Guo, L. J., Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2006, 12, 134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Matsko, A. B.; Ilchenko, V. S., Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes – Part I: Basics, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2006, 12, 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ilchenko, V. S.; Matsko, A. B., Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes – Part II: Applications, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2006, 12, 15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arnold, S.; Khoshsima, M.; Teraoka, I.; Holler, S.; Vollmer, F., Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption, Opt. Lett. 2003, 28, 272–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Armani, A. M.; Kulkarni, R. P.; Fraser, S. E.; Flagan, R. C.; Vahala, K. J., Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities, Science 2007, 317, 783–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. W., Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1995Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erickson, D.; Rockwood, T.; Emery, T.; Scherer, A.; Psaltis, D., Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits, Opt. Lett. 2006, 31, 59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Foresi, J. S.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Ferrera, J.; Thoen, E. R.; Steinmeyer, G.; Fan, S.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Kimerling, L. C.; Smith, H. I.; Ippen, E. P., Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides, Nature 1997, 390, 143–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee, M. R.; Fauchet, P. M., Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection, Opt. Express 2007, 15, 4530–4535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mandal, S.; Erickson, D., Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays, Opt. Express 2008, 16, 1623–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goddard, J.; Erickson, D.; “Bioconjugation Techniques for Microfluidic Biosensors” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2009, 394, 469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Almeida, V. R.; Panepucci, R. R.; Lipson, M., Nanotaper for compact mode conversion, Opt. Lett. 2003, 28, 1302–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elhadj, S.; Singh, G.; Saraf, R. F., Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm, Langmuir 2004, 20, 5539–5543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barbulovic–Nad, I.; Lucente, M.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, M. J.; Wheeler, A. R.; Bussmann, M., Bio-microarray fabrication techniques - A review, Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2006, 26, 237–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xu, L. P.; Robert, L.; Qi, O. Y.; Taddei, F.; Chen, Y.; Lindner, A. B.; Baigl, D., Microcontact printing of living bacteria arrays with cellular resolution, Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2068–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mannini, M.; Bonacchi, D.; Zobbi, L.; Piras, F. M.; Speets, E. A.; Caneschi, A.; Cornia, A.; Magnani, A.; Ravoo, B. J.; Reinhoudt, D. N.; Sessoli, R.; Gatteschi, D., Advances in single-molecule magnet surface patterning through microcontact printing, Nano Lett. 2005, 5, 1435–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ilic, B.; Craighead, H. G., Topographical patterning of chemically sensitive biological materials using a polymer-based dry lift off, Biomed. Microdevices 2000, 2, 317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moran-Mirabal, J.; Tan, C.; Orth, R.; Williams, E.; Craighead, H.; Lin, D., Controlling microarray spot morphology with polymer liftoff arrays, Anal. Chem. 2007, 79, 1109–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Orth, R. N.; Kameoka, J.; Zipfel, W. R.; Ilic, B.; Webb, W. W.; Clark, T. G.; Craighead, H. G., Creating biological membranes on the micron scale: Forming patterned lipid bilayers using a polymer lift-off technique, Biophys. J. 2003, 85, 3066–3073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Atsuta, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeuchi, S., A parylene lift-off process with microfluidic channels for selective protein patterning, J. Micromech. Microeng. 2007, 17, 496–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Majid, N.; Dabral, S.; McDonald, J. F., The parylene-aluminum multilayer interconnection system for wafer scale integration and wafer scale hybrid packaging, J. Electron. Mater. 1989, 18, 301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Byun, K. M.; Yoon, S. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. J., Sensitivity analysis of a nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor in the presence of surface roughness, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 2007, 24, 522–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fortin, J. B.; Lu, T. M., Ultraviolet radiation induced degradation of poly-para-xylylene (parylene) thin films, Thin Solid Films 2001, 397, 223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pruden, K. G.; Sinclair, K.; Beaudoin, S., Characterization of parylene-N and parylene-C photooxidation, J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 2003, 41, 1486–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee, M.; Fauchet, P. M., Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection, Opt. Express 2007, 15, 4530–4535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Le Berre, V.; Trevisiol, E.; Dagkessamanskaia, A.; Sokol, S.; Caminade, A. M.; Majoral, J. P.; Meunier, B.; Francois, J., Dendrimeric coating of glass slides for sensitive DNA microarrays analysis, Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, e88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pathak, S.; Singh, A. K.; McElhanon, J. R.; Dentinger, P. M., Dendrimer-activated surfaces for high density and high activity protein chip applications, Langmuir 2004, 20, 6075–6079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benters, R.; Niemeyer, C. M.; Wohrle, D., Dendrimer-activated-solid supports for nucleic acid and protein microarrays, Chembiochem. 2001, 2, 686–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Benters, R.; Niemeyer, C. M.; Drutschmann, D.; Blohm, D.; Wohrle, D., DNA microarrays with PAMAM dendritic linker systems, Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30, e10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harris, J. M., Poly(Ethyelene Glycol) Chemistry: Biotechnical and Biomedical Applications, Plenum, New York, NY, 1992, 385Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Caminade, A. M.; Padie, C.; Laurent, R.; Maraval, A.; Majoral, J. P., Uses of dendrimers for DNA microarrays, Sensors 2006, 6, 901–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hermanson, G. T., Bioconjugate Techniques, Academic, New York, NY, 1996, 785Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Goddard
    • 1
  • Sudeep Mandal
  • David Erickson
    • 1
  1. 1.Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations