• Günter P. Stummvoll
  • Ingrid Kromer
  • Isabella Hager


The political development of the European Union with its eastward expansion of its borders has reinforced Austria’s position as the geographic centre of Europe. Austria’s territory is composed of forests (43%), land devoted to agriculture (34%) and the Alps (10%). A significant part of Austria is rural or semi-urbanised, including the alpine regions in the west and hills towards the eastern borders with Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. About two-fifth of the land space is “urbanised” with Vienna (population larger than 1 million) as the only metropolitan area. Five cities fall into the population category of 75,000 to 250,000 inhabitants, and 18 towns have a population between 20,000 and 75,000. Further, 49 towns have a population between 10,000 and 20,000, and all other towns are smaller. Austria has a population of 8.175 million inhabitants (2004). Ninety-eight per cent of the population speaks German, and there are six officially recognised cultural minority groups (Croatians, Roma, Slovaks, Slovenians, Czechs and Hungarians) who mainly live in the southern and eastern regions. Approximately three-fourth of the population is RomanCatholic, 5% are Protestant and 21% are otherwise religiously affiliated or have no religious affiliation. With regard to employment, Austria appears to be pretty “average” for western European standards (6.4%).


School Type Vocational School Migration Background Juvenile Justice System Ninth Grade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bursik, R. J. and Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and Crime. New York, Lexington BooksGoogle Scholar
  2. Eder, F. (1996). Schul- und Klassenklima. Ausprägung, Determinanten und Wirkungen des Klimas an höheren Schulen. Innsbruck-Wien: StudienVerlagGoogle Scholar
  3. Gottfredson, M. R. and Hirschi T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Lilly, J. R., Cullen F. T., Ball R. A. (2002). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, 3rd Edition. London: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  6. Nye, F. I. (1958). Family Relationships and Delinquent Behavior. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  7. Reckless, W. C. (1967). The Crime Problem, 4th Edition. New York: Appleton-Century CroftsGoogle Scholar
  8. Wikström, P. O. H. (2006). Individuals, settings and acts of crime: situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In: Wikström P. -O. and Sampson R. J. (Eds.) The Explanation of Crime:Context, Mechanisms and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Günter P. Stummvoll
    • 1
  • Ingrid Kromer
  • Isabella Hager
  1. 1.Keele UniversityKeeleEngland

Personalised recommendations