From Marco Polo to the Syndicate: The History of a Multilevel Organisation
In this chapter, the focus is on the historical developments and processes in which the diamond industry has created its legality through control of information, adaptation to changes by moving its activity around, and by criminalisation of persons and activities which can interrupt its business. The chapter presents an analysis of the structure of a diamond organisation from diamond mines in Africa, through local dealers and processing centers, to the most important international banks and diamond exchange bourses all around the world. The central role in this structure is attributed to De Beers, which succeeded in the course of history to become a leading monopoly in the diamond industry. These developments are analysed and illustrated here by different cases connected to the legal and illicit activities of the cartel.