General Principles

  • Donna M. Coffey
  • Ibrahim Ramzy
Part of the Frozen Section Library book series (FROZEN, volume 11)


Gynecologic specimens are frequently submitted for intraoperative consultation, primarily to guide the scope of surgery. The main indications for frozen section in gynecologic surgery are to aid the surgeon in determining the extent of tumor spread, locally and in lymph nodes, to confirm the diagnosis of ovarian or other malignant condition prior to radical surgery, and to ensure the adequacy of biopsy or resection.


Cervical Cancer Freeze Section Endometrial Carcinoma Gynecologic Surgery Malignant Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Recommended Reading

  1. Acs G. Intraoperative consultation in gynecologic pathology. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2002;19:237–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC cancer staging manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. Baker P, Oliva E. A practical approach to intraoperative consultation in gynecological pathology. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27:353–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedet JL, Bender H, Jones 3rd H, et al. FIGO staging classifications and clinical practice guidelines in the management of gynecologic cancers. FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2000;70:209–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berek JS, Hacker NF, editors. Berek & Hacker’s practical gynecologic oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.Google Scholar
  6. Clements PB, Young RH. Atlas of gynecologic surgical pathology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2000.Google Scholar
  7. Crum CP, Lee KR, editors. Diagnostic gynecologic and obstetric pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. DiSaia PJ, Creasman WT. Clinical gynecologic oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier; 2007.Google Scholar
  9. Hoskins W, Perez CA, Young RC. Principles and practice of gynecologic oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins; 2000.Google Scholar
  10. Ismiil N, Ghorab Z, Nofech-Mozes S, et al. Intraoperative consultation in gynecologic pathology: a 6 year audit at a tertiary care medical center. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19:152–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nucci MR, Oliva E, editors. Gynecologic pathology a volume in the series foundations in diagnostic pathology. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009.Google Scholar
  12. Rock JA, Johns III HW. TeLinde’s operative gynecology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott; 2008.Google Scholar
  13. Robboy SJ, Anderson MC, Russell P, editors. Pathology of the female reproductive tract. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2002.Google Scholar
  14. Saglam EA, Usubutum A, Ayhan A, et al. Mistakes prevent mistakes: experience from intraoperative consultation with frozen section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;125:266–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang KG, Chen TC, Wang TY, et al. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis in gynecology. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;70:105–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine The Methodist HospitalWeill Medical College of Cornell UniversityHoustonUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations