Advertisement

Prediction of Damage Propagation and Failure of Composite Structures (Without Testing)

  • G. Labeas
Chapter

Abstract

The increasing application of advanced fibrous composites as primary structural materials in aerospace, marine and automotive applications has resulted in the need of developing reliable methods to predict the performance of composite structures beyond initial local failure. The partial replacement of testing in the prediction of damage propagation and failure mechanisms in composite structures beyond the first failure has been motivated by the high cost and difficulty of extensive experiments on composite structures, especially at high- or full-scale level.

In the current chapter, the basics of the progressive damage modeling (PDM) methodology, comprising three major components, that is, computational model, failure analysis and representation of damage evolution, are implemented in the prediction of structural response and demonstrated in the case of different composite structures, at various scale levels, including the multiscale. PDM demonstrations include composite open-hole panels, bolted joints, bonded repairs and carbon nanotube reinforced structures.

Keywords

Failure Mode Representative Volume Element Stress Intensity Factor Composite Plate Fibre Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Ahn and A.M. Waas, “The Failure of Notched Composite Laminates Under Compression Using Integrated Macro-Micromechanics Model,” 46th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference 1954, 2005, pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.H. Ahn and A.M. Waas, “Micromechanics-Based Predictive Model for Compressively Loaded Angle-Ply Composite Laminates,” AIAA J., Vol. 38, 2000, pp. 2299–2304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ANSYS User’s manual. Version 10. Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Belytschko, S. Xiao, G. Schatz et al., “Atomistic Simulations of Nanotube Fracture,” Phys. Rev. B., Vol. 65, 2002, p. 235430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.P. Camanho and F.L. Matthews, “Delamination Onset Prediction in Mechanically Fastened Joints in Composite Laminates,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 33, 1999, pp. 906–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.P. Camanho and F.L. Mathews, “A Progressive Damage Model for Mechanically Fastened Joints in Composites Laminates,” J. Comp. Mater., Vol. 33, 2000, pp. 906–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.P. Camanho, C.G. Dá vila, S.T. Pinho et al., “Prediction of In Situ Strengths and Matrix Cracking in Composites under Transverse Tension and In-Plane Shear,” Composites Part A, Vol. 37, 2006, pp. 165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.C. Chamis, L.N. Murthy, and L. Minnetyan, “Progressive Fracture in Composite Structures,” Compos. Mater. Fatigue Fract., Vol. 6, 1997, pp. 70–84Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F.K. Chang and K.Y. Chang, “A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentrations,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 21, 1987, pp. 834–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F.K. Chang, L. Lessard, and J.M. Tang, “Compression Response of Laminated Composites Containing an Open Hole,” SAMPE Q., Vol. 19, 1988, pp. 46–51Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.M. Christensen, Failure Criteria for Anisotropic Fiber Composite Materials www.failurecriteria.com cited 25 February 2008
  12. 12.
    G.D. Chu and C.T. Sun, “Failure Initiation and Ultimate Strength of Composite Laminates Containing a Center Hole,” Compos. Mater. Fatigue Fract. ASTM, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.A. Cooper, S.R. Cohen, A.H. Barber et al., “Wagner, Detachment of Nanotubes from a Polymer Matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 81, 2002, p. 3873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. David, “Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures,” Sleight Langley Research Center NASA/TP-1999-209107, 1999Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Fredell, C. Guijt, and J. Mazza, “An Integrated Bonded Repair System: A Reliable Means of Giving New Life to Aging Airframes,” Appl. Compos. Mater., Vol. 6, 1999, pp. 269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.H. Gosse and S. Christensen, “Strain Invariant Failure Criteria for Polymers in Composite Materials,” AIAA, Vol. 1, 2001, pp. 45–55Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.K. Ha, K.K. Jin, and Y. Huang, “Micro-Mechanics of Failure (MMF) for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 42, 2008, pp. 1873–1895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.T. Hahn and S.W. Tsai, “On the Behavior of Composite Laminates After Initial Failures,” Astronautics and Aeronautics, Vol. 21, 1983, pp. 58–62Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z. Hashin, “Failure Criteria for Unidirectional Fiber Composites,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., Vol. 47, 1980, pp. 329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Z. Hashin and A. Rotem, “A Fatigue Failure Criterion for Fiber Reinforced Materials,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 7, 1973, pp. 448–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Hu, C.H. Yang, and F.M. Lin, “Buckling Analyses of Composite Laminate Skew Plates with Material Nonlinearity,” Composites part B, Vol. 37, 2006, pp. 26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.L. Hung and F.K. Chang, “Bearing Failure of Bolted Composite Joints. Part II: Model and Verification,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 30, 1996, pp. 1359–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Iijima, “Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon,” Nature, Vol. 354, 1991, pp. 56–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Ireman, “Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Bolted Single-Lap Composite Joints,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 43, 1999, pp. 195–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Ireman, T. Ranvik, and I. Eriksson, “On Damage Development in Mechanically Fastened Composite Laminates,” Comp. Struct., Vol. 49, 2000, pp. 151–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.M. Jones, Mechanics of Composite Materials. Taylor and Francis, New York, 1999Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Kim, J.F. Davalos, and E.J. Barbero, “Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 30, 1996, pp. 536–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.T. Kortschot and W.R. Beaumont, “Damage Mechanics of Composite Materials: II – A Damaged-Based Notched Strength Model,” Compos. Sci. Technol., Vol. 39, 1990, 303–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Kress, M. Siau, and P. Ermanni, “Iterative Solution Methods for Damage Progression Analysis,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 69, 2005, pp. 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y.W. Kwon and L.E. Craugh, “Progressive Failure Modeling in Notched Cross-Ply Fibrous Composites,” Appl. Compos. Mater., Vol. 8, 2001, pp. 63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Labeas, S. Belesis, and D. Stamatelos, “Interaction of Damage Failure and Post-Buckling Behaviour of Composite Plates with Cut-Outs by Progressive Damage Modelling,” Composites: Part B, Vol. 39, 2008, pp. 304–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    F. Laurin, N. Carrére, and J.F. Maire, “A Multiscale Progressive Failure Approach for Composite Laminates Based on Thermodynamical Viscoelastic and Damage Models,” Composites Part A: Appl. Sci. Manufact., Vol. 38, 2007, pp. 198–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K.S. Liu and S.W. Tsai, “A Progressive Quadratic Failure Criterion for a Laminate,” Compos. Sci. Technol., Vol. 58, 1998, pp. 1023–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Mania, “Buckling Analysis of Trapezoidal Composite Sandwich Plate Subjected to in Plane Compression,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 69, 2005, pp. 482–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J.S. Mayes and A.C. Hansen, “A Comparison of Multicontinuum Theory Based Failure Simulation with Experimental Results,” Compos. Sci. Technol., Vol. 64, 2004, pp. 517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Murray and L. Schwer, “Implementation and Verification of Fiber-Composite Damage Models,” Failure Criteria and Analysis in Dynamic Response, ASME, Vol. 107, 1990, pp. 21–30Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.N. Nahas, “Survey of Failure and Post-Failure Theories of Laminated Fiber-Reinforced Composites,” J. Compos. Technol. Res., Vol. 8, 1986, pp. 138–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.P. Nemeth, “Buckling Behaviour of Compression Loaded Symmetrically Laminated Angle-Ply Plates with Holes,” AIAA J., Vol. 26, 1988, pp. 330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.P. Nemeth, M. Stein, and E. Johnson, “An approximate buckling analysis for rectangular orthotropic composite plates with centrally located cut-out,” NASA TP 2528, 1986Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    O. Ochoa and J.N. Reddy, Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1992Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. Pal and C. Ray, “Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates by Finite Element Method,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 1505–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Papanikos, K.I. Tserpes, and G.Labeas et al., “Progressive Damage Modelling of Bonded Composite Repairs,” Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech., Vol. 63, 2004, pp. 219–230Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    P. Papanikos, K.I. Tserpes, and Sp. Pantelakis, “Initiation and Progression of Composite Patch Debonding in Adhesively Repaired Cracked Metallic Sheets,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 81, 2007, pp. 303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P.H. Petit and M.E. Waddoups, “A Method of Predicting the Nonlinear Behaviour of Laminated Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 3, 1969, pp. 2–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    B.G. Prusty, “Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminated Unstiffened and Stiffened Composite Panels,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., Vol. 24, 2005, pp. 633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    X. Qing, H.T. Sun, L. Dagba et al., “Damage-Tolerance-Based Design of Bolted Composite Joints,” Compos. Struct.: Theory and Practice, ASTM PA Vol. 1383, 2000, pp. 243–272Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. Qian, E. Dickey, R. Andrews et al., “Load Transfer and Deformation Mechanisms in Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 76, 2000, pp. 2868–2870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    N. Reddy, M.D. Moorthy, and J.N. Reddy, “Non-Linear Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates,” Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., Vol. 30, 1995, pp. 629–649MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    R.S. Sandhu, “Nonlinear Behavior of Unidirectional and Angle Ply Laminates,” J. Aircr., Vol. 13, 1974, pp. 104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    R.S. Sandhu, G.P. Sendeckyj, and R.L. Gallo, “Modeling of the Failure Process in Notched Laminates,” Mech. Compos. Mater. Recent Adv. 1983, pp. 179–189Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R.S. Sandhu, G.P. Sendeckyj, and R.L. Gallo, “Modeling of the Failure Process in Notched Laminates.” In: Z. Hashin and C.T. Herakovich, Eds., Mechanics of Composite Materials. Recent Advances, pp. 179–189, Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    T.E. Tay, G. Liu, B.C. Tan et al., ) “Progressive Failure Analysis of Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 42, 2008, pp. 1921–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    S.C. Tan, “A Progressive Failure Model for Composite Laminates Containing Openings,” J. Comp. Mater., Vol. 25, 1991, pp. 556–577Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S.W. Tsai and E.M. Wu, “A General Theory of Strength for Anisotropic Materials,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 5, 1971, pp. 58–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K.I. Tserpes and G.N. Labeas, “Mesomechanical Analysis of Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Structural Parts,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 87, 2009, pp. 358–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    K.I. Tserpes, G. Labeas, P. Papanikos et al., “Strength Prediction of Bolted Joints in Graphite/Epoxy Composite Laminates,” Composites Part B, Vol. 33, 2002, pp. 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    K.I. Tserpes, P. Papanikos, and Th. Kermanidis, “A Three-Dimensional Progressive Damage Model for Bolted Joints in Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loading,” Fatigue Fract. Engng. Mater. Struct., Vol. 24, 2001, 10, 673–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    K.I. Tserpes, P. Papanikos, G. Labeas et al., “Multi-Scale Modeling of Tensile Behavior of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites,” Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech., Vol. 49, 2008, pp. 51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    H.D. Wagner, O. Lourie, Y. Feldman et al., “Stress-Induced Fragmentation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in a Polymer Matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 72, 1998, pp. 188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    D. Xie, B. Sherill, and Jr. Biggers, “Post Buckling Analysis with Progressive Damage Modelling in Tailored Laminated Plate and Shells with a Cut-Out,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 59, 2003, pp. 199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. Yap, R.S. Thomson, M.L. Scott et al., Influence of Post-Buckling Behaviour of Composite Stiffened Panels on the Damage Criticality,” Compos. Struct., Vol. 66, 2004, pp. 197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Yokozeki, Y. Iwahori, and S. Ishiwata, “Matrix Cracking Behaviors in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates Filled with Cup-Stacked Carbon Nanotubes (CSCNTs),” Composites Part A, Vol. 38, 2007, pp. 917–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Zhao and C. Cho, “On Impact Damage of Composite Shells by a Low-Velocity Projectile,” J. Compos. Mater., Vol. 38, 2004, pp. 1231–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Technology and Strength of MaterialsUniversity of Patras, Panepistimioupolis Rion26500 PatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations