The  Schema  Approach:  A  Dynamic View on Remembering

  • Naohisa Mori


In this chapter, we will propose a new approach to remembering and memory. This is called the ‘schema approach’ (Ohashi, Mori, Takagi, & Matsushima, 2002). This name—and its underlying idea, of course—come from Frederic Bartlett’s schema theory (Bartlett, 1932). Our approach has four features. First, it attempts to explore the veracity of a rememberer’s experience under the assumption that it is not possible to access the original event that the rememberer actually experienced. Second, this approach aims to find out the veracity through communication between a speaker and a recipient on the topic of the event to be recollected. Third, we point out that the veracity of an experience should be evaluated on the basis of the particular narrative style of recall, and not based on its contents. Finally, the veracity is examined case by case; that is, the situated remembering of an individual person is considered.


False Memory Social Constructionism Traditional Research Original Event Police Interrogation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Part of the present study was done with the support of the 2004 Sapporo Gakuin University Research Support Grant.


  1. Bartlett, F. C. (1920). Psychology in relation to the popular story. Folk-Lore, 31, 264–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartlett, F. C. (1923). Psychology and primitive culture. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bergson, H. (1990). Jikan tojiyuu [Essai sur les donn_es imm_diates de la conscience.] (H. Hirai, Trans.). Tokyo: Hakusui-Shya. (Original work published 1889)Google Scholar
  5. Bergson, H. (1995). Bussitsuto kioku [Mati_re et m_moire: Essai sur la relation du corps a l’esprit] (S. Okabe, Trans.). Tokyo: Surugadai-Shuppansya. (Original work published 1896)Google Scholar
  6. Casey, E. S. (1983). Remembering: A phenomenological study. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ebbinghaus, H. (1983). Kioku ni tsuite [Memory] (T. Utsugi, Trans.). Tokyo: Seishin-Shobo. (Original work published 1885)Google Scholar
  8. Edwards, D., & Middleton, D. (1986). Joint remembering: Constructing an account of shared experience through conversational discourse. Discourse Processes, 9, 423–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edwards, D., & Middleton, D. (1987). Conversation and remembering: Bartlett revisited. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1, 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards, D., & Potter, J. (1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Gergen, K. J. (1994). Mind, text, and society: Self-memory in social context. In U. Neisser & R. Fivush (Eds.), The remembering self: Construction and accuracy in the self-narrative (pp. 78–104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  13. Gunji, Y.-P. (2004). Emergent computation and ontological measurement [Genseikeisan to sonzairontekikansoku]. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Johnson, M. K., & Raye, C. L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 88, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Loftus, E. (1979). Eyewitness testimony. London: Harverd University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Loftus, E. (1997, September). Creating false memory. Scientific American, 277(3), 50–55.Google Scholar
  17. Loftus, E., & Ketcham, K. (1992). The myth of repressed memory. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  18. Middleton, D., & Brown, S. D. (2005). The social psychology of experience. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Middleton, D., & Edwards, D. (1990). Collective remembering. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Mori, N. (2005). Approaching to experiences behind statements [Kyojutsu no haigo ni aru taiken eno sekkin]. In Y. Katagiri & K. Kataoka (Eds.), Readings of sociolinguistics 5: The social and behavioural systems [Kouza Syakaigengokagaku 5: Syakai koudou sisutemu] (pp. 31–67). Tokyo: Hitsuji-Syobo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Mori, N. (1995). The function of remembering and the nature of a group in joint remembering. Japanese Psychological Review, 38, 107–136. (in Japanese with an English abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Mori, N. (2008a). Styles of remembering and types of experience: An experimental investigation of reconstructive memory. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 42, 291–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mori, N. (2008b). Detecting a remembering self [Souki suru watashi wo hakken suru]. In M. Naka (Ed.), Psychology of self: A cognitive psychological view [Jiko shinrigaku: Ninchi shinrigaku no kanten] (pp. 200–216). Tokyo: Kaneko-Syobo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Ohashi, Y., & Mori, N. (2002). Joint construction of ‘facts’ in court: A casestudy of microscopic communication. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 4, 73–86.Google Scholar
  25. Ohashi, Y., Mori, N., Takagi, K., & Matsushima, K. (2002). A psychologist meets a trial [Shinrigakusha, saiban to deau]. Kyoto: Kitaooji Shobo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Reed, E. S. (1994). Perception is to self as memory is to selves. In U. Neisser & R. Fivush (Eds.), The remembering self: Construction and accuracy in the self-narrative (pp. 278–292). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Reed, E. S. (1996). Encountering the world: Toward an ecological psychology. New York: Oxfords University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Roediger, H. L., III, Bergman, E. T., & Meade, M. L. (2000). Repeated reproduction from memory. In A. Saito (Ed.), Bartlett, culture and cognition (pp. 115–134). Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sasaki, M. (1996). A note on the ‘nature’ of remembering [Souki no ‘shizen’ ni tsuite no oboegaki]. In M. Sasaki (Ed.), Fields of remembering [Souki no field] (pp. 31–67). Tokyo: Shinyou-Sha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  30. Shobe, K. K., & Schooler, J. W. (2001). Discovering fact and fiction: Case-based analyses of authentic and fabricated discovered memories of abuse. In G. M. Davis & T. Dalgleish (Eds.), Recovered memories: Seeking the middle ground (pp. 95–151). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Takagi, K. (2002). An essay on the developmental course of remembering [Souki no hattatsushi]. In S. Tanabe & M. Matsuda (Eds.), Ethnographies on everyday practices [Nichijouteki jissen no ethnography] (pp. 40–60). Kyoto: Sekaishisou-Sha. (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  32. Takagi, K. (2006). An essay on ‘memory space’ [‘Kioku kuukan’ Shiron]. In R. Nishii & S. Tanabe (Eds.), An anthropology of social space [Syakai kuukan no jinruigaku] (pp. 48–64). Kyoto: Sekaishisou-Sha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. Valsiner, J. (2000). Culture and human development. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologySapporo Gakuin UniversityEbetsu-shi, HokkaidoJapan

Personalised recommendations