Multilevel Simultaneous Component Analysis for Studying Intra-Individual Variability and Inter-Individual Differences

  • Marieke E. Timmerman
  • Eva Ceulemans
  • Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff
  • Kristof Vansteelandt


In psychology, the distinction between traits and states has become commonplace for a long time: Whereas traits pertain to person features that are relatively stable and consistent, states refer to person features that fluctuate across time, for example as a result of situational influences. For instance, Allport and Odbert (1936) provided an extensive list of trait and state terms to characterize personality and personal behavior. The trait terms describe permanent, consistent dispositions and were considered to ‘symbolize most clearly “real” traits of personality’ (Allport & Odbert, 1936, p. 26). The state terms describe ‘Temporary Moods or Activities’. They were not considered to symbolize personality, and were merely included for the sake of completeness.


Physical Activity Negative Affect Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Measurement Occasion 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marieke E. Timmerman
    • 1
  • Eva Ceulemans
  • Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff
  • Kristof Vansteelandt
  1. 1.Heymans Institute for Psychological ResearchUniversity of GroningenTS GroningenThe Netherlands

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