Electroless Deposition Processes and Tools

  • Z. HuEmail author
  • T. Ritzdorf


Electroless deposition, which was introduced in 1946 by Brenner and Riddell [1], is a type of electrochemical deposition that is gaining interest in semiconductor and related applications. Electroless deposition utilizes complementary electrochemical reactions to cause metal deposition. The oxidation of a reducing agent supplies the electrons needed for reducing metal ions to their metallic state [2]. This encompasses both immersion (displacement) deposition reactions and autocatalytic reactions. One should use electroless deposition in cases where it is desirable to deposit metal on non-conducting surfaces or to deposit metal selectively to certain underlying materials, especially if there is no possibility to have a continuous conductive underlayer. Current applications of interest in the microelectronics industry include copper deposition for seed layer and interconnect metallization, nickel and gold depositions for contact metallurgy in microelectronics packaging and related applications, and cobalt–tungsten alloys as diffusion barrier for copper interconnects.


Gold Deposition Copper Deposition Displacement Reaction Electroless Nickel Electroless Deposition 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Semitool Inc.KalispellUSA

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