Electrochemical Deposition Processes and Tools

  • T. RitzdorfEmail author


Beginning in the early 1990s, automated wafer processing equipment was adapted for electrochemical deposition (ECD) applications on semiconductor wafers and similar substrates. Integrating the automation of mainstream wafer processing equipment with ECD processes to produce equipment consistent with semiconductor processing was a significant engineering challenge. In the years since, several application-specific types of electrochemical processing equipment, each designed to meet its own specific requirements, have been produced [1, 2].


Solder Alloy Seed Layer Wafer Surface Electrophoretic Deposition Electroless Deposition 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Semitool Inc.KalispellUSA

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