MOS Device and Interconnects Scaling Physics



The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is the most common active device in today’s integrated circuits. Its basic structure consists of a doped silicon well, with at the opposite ends two highly doped contact regions (the source and drain junctions) allowing the current to pass close to the well surface (Fig. 2.1). In an n-type MOSFET, the well region is p-type doped and the source and drain are n+ doped, whereas the reverse polarity scheme applies for p-type devices. CMOS circuits contain both n-MOS and p-MOS transistors combined to form various logic gates. The transistor body is electrically isolated from the surrounding circuitry by a thick “field” oxide. A third electrode (the gate), to which the input signal is applied, is sitting on top of the well. It consists of an electrical contact layer (usually heavily doped polysilicon with a metallic top layer) separated from the silicon substrate by a thin insulator film made of thermally grown silicon dioxide. The substrate is thus capacitively coupled to the gate electrode, making the MOSFET a nearly ideal switch element due to the high isolation between input and output.


Threshold Voltage Power Dissipation Gate Insulator Gate Length Gate Delay 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IMECLeuvenBelgium

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