ALD Seed Layers for Plating and Electroless Plating



Atomic layer deposition (ALD) in many ways is a logical extension of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with close scrutiny over precursor deliver and one other aspect, namely, the process and chemistry defined by its self-limiting nature. During each pulse of precursor, no more than one chemical monolayer, which is often a metallorganic, is chemisorbed onto the substrate surface. The discussion here is focused on metal ALD; however, much of the discussion can be applied to other ALD systems. The precursor delivery with ALD is modulated unlike CVD where the precursors are all delivered together. In both cases a carrier and process gas is used with low pressure conditions (∼1 mTorr to ∼10 Torr regime). CVD can be conceptually written out according to Equation (12.1).


Atomic Layer Deposition Seed Layer Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Electroless Deposition Glyoxylic Acid 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brewer Science IncRollaUSA

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