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Renewable Energies

  • İbrahim Dinçer
  • Calin Zamfirescu
Chapter

Abstract

As mentioned in Chapter 2, there are a number of fundamental sources of energy on earth, such as solar radiation, geothermal heat, and earth spinning combined with gravitational forces of the moon–Earth–sun planetary system. These kinds of energy sources are said to be renewable in the sense that they are never depleted. In contrast, other energy resources, such as fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum) and nuclear fuels (uranium, thorium), are nonrenewable and thus limited. Among the fundamental energy sources, solar energy is the only one that manifests in a multitude of direct and indirect forms on earth.

Keywords

Wind Turbine Solar Collector Heat Engine Heat Transfer Fluid Exergy Efficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

C

Concentration ratio

COP

Coefficient of performance

\( {C_{\rm{p}}} \)

Power coefficient (−), specific heat (J/kg K)

e

Elementary electric charge (C)

\( {{\dot{E}x}} \)

Exergy rate (W)

FF

Filling factor

GCV

Gross calorific value (MJ/kg)

h

Specific enthalpy (J/kg) or (J/mol)

I

Irradiation (W/m2), current intensity (A)

\( {k_{\rm{B}}} \)

Boltzmann constant

LEC

Levelized electricity cost

M

Molecular mass (kg/kmol)

NCV

Net calorific value (MJ/kg)

Q

Heat (J)

R

Radius (m), resistance (Ω)

T

Temperature (K)

U

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

V

Voltage (V), velocity (m/s)

W

Work (J)

w

Moisture content

Greek Letters

α

Absorptivity

γ

Intercept factor

ε

Emissivity

η

Energy efficiency

μ

Chemical potential

φ

Subunitary factor

χ

Factor

ψ

Exergy efficiency

ρ

Reflectivity (−); density (kg/m3)

ζ

Shading factor

σ

Stefan–Boltzmann constant (W/m2 K4)

τ

Transmissivity

θ

Dimensionless temperature

Ω

Solid angle

ϕ

Angle

Subscripts

0

Reference state

cog

Cogeneration

coll

Collector

db

Direct beam

e

Emitted or electric

diss

Dissipation

max

Maximum

oc

Open circuit

opt

Optical

PV

Photovoltaic

r

Receiver

rev

Reversible

S

Sun

SC

Solar constant

sc

Short circuit

T0

Tilted surface

th

Thermal

Superscripts

\( ({\,^\cdot }\,) \)

Rate (per unit of time)

\( (\,\,)^{\prime\prime} \)

Per unit of surface

\( (^\sim ) \)

Dimensionless

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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