Ammonia as a Potential Substance



Ammonia is a substance formed from hydrogen, the most abundant chemical element of the universe, and nitrogen, the major component of the terrestrial atmosphere (79%). It is interesting to note that the second major component of the terrestrial atmosphere, oxygen (21%) in combination with hydrogen forms water. Similarly to water, ammonia plays a major role in the global ecosystem: it represents a nitrogen source for all living species. At the same time, ammonia can play a major role in the sustainable development of mankind since it is a hydrogen source that packs 1.5 mol of hydrogen per mol of NH3 at a density as high as 106 kg H2/m3. Moreover, ammonia is produced industrially in large quantities as artificial fertilizer for agriculture. With respect to sustainable development, it is of major importance to find and promote cleaner and more efficient technologies of ammonia production, since NH3 is produced currently from fossil fuels, and its synthesis process leads to major greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale and consumes a significant amount of the world’s energy budget.


Fuel Cell Heat Recovery Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Ammonia Production Fuel Tank 
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Specific cost, currency per mass


Specific exergy, kJ/kg


Gravitational acceleration, m/s2


Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg


Formation enthalpy, J/mol


Lower heating value, MJ/kg


Pressure, Pa


Specific entropy, KJ/kg K


Temperature, K


Mass specific work, J/kg


Dissociation fraction


Elevation, m

Greek Letters






Molar mass, kg/kmol


Density, kg/m3



Reference state


Cooling effect












\( (\ )^{\prime\prime\prime} \)

Per unit of volume


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering & Applied ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada

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